Chapter 11,12, 13,15, and 16

128 terms by bredfearn 

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Terms for chapter11 endocrine system, 12 blood, 13 Cardivascular System, 16 Respiratory System

transportation

transports gases, nutrients, hormones, metabolic wastes

regulation

regulates pH, electrolytes, stabilizes temperature, restricts its own loss

protection

White cells, delivers antibodies

composition

45% formed elements, 55% plasma

formed elements

Red Blood cells - erythrocytes - RBCs, White Blood cells - leukocytes - WBCs, Platelets

plasma

composed of 92% water

Plasma Proteins

Albumin- synthesized in liver
Globulins- antibodies
Fibrinogen- basic framework
for a blood clot

Hemoglobin

Red blood cell is a cell membrane surrounding a mass of hemoglobin
Hemoglobin molecule contains iron (Fe) ions that bind to oxygen
Oxygen easily binds and is released from hemoglobin

Hemoglobin Carbon Monoxide

Carbon Monoxide (CO) binds to hemoglobin but does not release
Carbon Monoxide binds (200 times more) than oxygen to hemoglobin
Carbon monoxide poisoning can easily occur from cars, fuel oil heaters, burning charcoals, and cigarettes

Leukocytes

Neutrophils 50-70%
Attack and destroy bacteria
Lymphocytes 20-30%
Act to protect the body and its tissue
Monocytes 2-8%
Engulf items even outside the blood stream
Eosinophils 2-4%
Phagocytic, increased in allergic reactions
Basophils 1%
Release histamine and heparin

Neutrophils

stain light purple, nucleus is lobed, consist of 2-5 sections

Lymphocytes

slightly larger than red blood cells, large round nucleus

Monocytes

largest blood cells, 2-3 times larger than RBC,

Eosinophils

contain course, uniformly sized cytoplasmic granules, stain deep red

Basophils

similar to eosinophils, they have fewer more irregularly shaped cytoplasmic granules

blood types

determined by antigens that attach to the surface of RBC

endocrine system

includes all endocrine glands in the body, ductless glands secrete hormones that cause slow but long lasting effects

endocrine

pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, thymus, adrenal glands, pancreas, reproductive organs, and the pineal gland are all organs of the _________ system

pituitary gland

also known as the master gland the _________ ___________ lies under the brain in the sella turcica of the sphenoid bone and secretes 8 different hormones

anterior pituitary

Thyroid-stimulating hormone -TSH, Adrenocorticotropic hormone- ACTH, Follicle-stimulating hormone - FSH, Luteinizing hormone -LH, Prolactin -PRL, Growth Hormone -GH are produced by the ______________ ____________

posterior

oxytocin and vasopressin are excreted by the ____________ pituitary

thyroid stimulating hormone

_________ _________ _________ Targets thyroid gland, triggers the release of thyroid hormones, Controls cellular metabolism & oxygen consumption

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

______________ ______________ Stimulates the release of 3 steroid hormones by the adrenal cortex, Mineralcorticoids - salt content of blood
Glucocorticoids - increase blood glucose levels
Sex hormones - both male (androgen) and female (estrogen)

Follicle stimulating hormone

Promotes oocyte development in womenPromotes sperm production

Luteinizing hormone

Induces ovulation (egg release) in women
Induces production of testosterone in men

Prolactin

______________ Stimulates the formation of mammary glands and their production of milk and means before milk

growth hormone

___________ ____________ also called the human growth hormone, stimulates overall growth of the body especially in the skeletal and muscular systems of the body

antidiuretic

______________ hormone decreases the amount of water lost by the kidney

oxytocin

stimulates smooth muscle cells of the uterus and begins contractions of childbirth

GOAT FLAP

the acronym ___________ ___________ stands for Growth hormone, Oxytocin, Adrenocorticotropic, Thyroid hormone, Follicle stimulating hormone, Luteinizing hormone, Antidiuretic hormone, Prolactin

Thyroid gland

_____________ __________ is right below the adams apple and secretes two hormones, thyroxine and calcitonin

Thyroxine

_____________ controls cellular metabolism

calcitonin

______________ lowers calcium levels in the blood

parathyroid glands

_____________ _____________ located on the posterior of the thyroid and increase the amount of calcium in the blood

Thymus

____________ gland. Posterior of the sternum, enourmous in babies, produces hormones called thymosins which promote the production of T lymphocytes

adrenal

_____________ glands are on top of each kidney produces glucocorticoids which are anti inflammatory

cortex

the adrenal __________ produces epinephrine or adrenaline which prepares the body for fight or flight and speeds up cellular energy

pancreas

the _____________ lies between the stomach and small intestine, hs both endocrine and exocrine functions and produces insulin and glucagon

gonads

_____________ are the testes in males, produce testosterone, and the ovaries in women, produce estrogen

Pineal

_____________ gland lies in the brain on the roof of the diencephalon and produces melatonin

anabolic

athletes use ________________ steroids that are synthetic molecules of testosterone, to improve performance

AED

Automated External Defibrilator gives an electrical shock to someones heart that has had a myocardial infarction

ICD

Implantable Cardioverter Defibrilator. Placed under the skin of someone who has a heart condition and can diliver ashock if ventrical tachardia or ventricular fibrillation occur

ICD

corrects heart beats that are too fast

pacemaker

corrects heartbeats that are two slow

coronary

________________ circulation, superior and inferior vena cava, Right Atrium, tricuspid, right ventricle, pulmonary artery to lungs, pulmonary veins, to left atrium, bicuspid (mitral) to left ventricle, aorta to head and body

epicardium

The ____________ covers the outside of the heart

myocardium

___________ makes up the muscular wall of the heart

endocardium

makes up the inner surfaces of the heart and the valves

pericardium

a tough layer of tissue that surrounds the heart is called the fibrous ____________

parietal

the __________ pericardium separates the fibrous pericardium from the epicardium

pericardial

the ___________ cavity is the space between the epicardium and the parietal pericardium

Systole

__________ is the high pressure of ventricles contracting - Contraction

Diastole

________ is the low pressure of ventricles relaxing - Relaxation

p wave

______________ is the atrial contraction

QSR Complex

___________ is the ventrical contraction

t wave

___________ is when the ventricle returns to resting state

atherosclerosis

______________ is when deposits of fatty materials such as cholesterol, form within and on the inner linning of the arterial walls

ductus arteriosis

__________ __________ the duct that is present in a fetus that allows blood to bypass the lungs

foramen ovale

_________ ____________ fetus circulation where blood bypasses the lungs

arteriosclerosis

hardening of the arteries

aneurysm

__________ is a bulge in a weakened part of the blood vessel wall

Hypertension

__________ or high blood pressure is when the resting blood pressure is 140/90 120/80 is considered normal

cardiomyopathies

progressive degeneration of the heart muscle and is irreversible. Caused by chronic alcoholism and chronic heart disease, viruses, bacteria, protozoa and fungi

ETS

_____________ stands for Environmental tobacco smoke. Studies now show that it is just as dangerous as actually smoking and kills an estimated 53,000 annually

respiratory system

________________ includes the lungs the airways leading to the lungs and the muscles that move air in and out of the lungs

surface area

the ___________ ____________ of the lings is 35 times larger than the surface area of the body and is the equivalent to the size of a tennis court

respiration

__________ is the exchange of gases from the environment and living cells

internal

____________ respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and cells

external

______________ respiration is the exchange of gases between the blood and the lungs

pharynx

___________ is composed of three sections the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and the laryngopharynx

nasopharynx

part of the pharynx located behind the nose is called the __________________

oropharynx

the part of the pharynx located behind the mouth is called the ____________

laryngopharynx

the ___________ is the area of the pharynx that extends from the oropharynx to the esophagus

larynx

the _________ is composed of 9 cartilages stabalized by ligaments and skeletal muscles, during swallowing, the epiglottis folds back to prevent food from going into the lungs, thyroid cartilage forms the anterior sides of the larynx (adams apple)

trachea

______________ is a tough flexible tube about 4" long, lined with c shaped cartilages that keep it from collapsing. Also known as the windpipe

bronchi

___________ branch off of the tracea. the right is larger and more verticle than the left which is smaller and angled

alveoli

the place where gas exchange takes place, the ______________ have the surface area of a tennis court. Each lung contains 150million

lung lobes

there are two __________ ____________ in the left lung and three in the right lung

visceral

the __________ pleura surrounds each lung

parietal

the thoracic cavity is surrounded by a membrane called the _______ pleura

pneumothorax

_____________ is a condition in which there has been a puncture of the thoracic cavity allowing air into the pleural cavity creating space between the membranes

atelectasis

____________ is the condition of a colapsed lung

diaphram

__________ the dome shaped muscle between the thoracic and abdominal cavity

tidal volume

___________ is the term used for the 500mL of air that is moved in and out of the lungs during a quiet respiratory cycle

coryza

__________ or the common cold can be caused by over 200 different viruses

rhinoviruses

______________ cause 50% of all colds

diptheria

___________ caused by bacteria in the pharynx

tetanus

the disease caused by bacteria in the soil is called _____________

pertussis

also known as whooping couch, _____________ is a highly contagious disease of infants and young children

tuberculosis

___________ is highly contagious and caused by bacteria, the leading cause of disease world wide with 3 million deaths each year. Anyone who breaths is at risk

asthma

_________ characterized by unusually sensitive and irritable conducting passageways, triggered by allergen or pollen and causes breathlessness and wheezing due to bronchoconstriction

cystic fibrosis

___________ is an inherited diseaseof 1 in 30,000. The exocrine system cant transport water properly. Secretions are thick and gooey and the lungs cant clean themselves out.

RDS

___________ is a condition where there is a lack of surfactant. It is found in premature babies, the lungs start producing surcfactant at the end of the 6th fetal month. respiratory distress syndrome

emphysema

a progressive degenerative disease that destroys alviolar walls. Alvioli combine to form larger chambers reducing surface area, lost of tussue elasticity makes it harder to force air out of the lungsis called ____________

digestion

___________ refers to the mechanical and chemical breakdown of food

digestive system

the _____________ _______________ consists of the ailmentary canal, leading from mouth to anus and several accessory organs whose secretions aid the processes of digestion

ailmentary

the ___________ canal is a muscular tube about 9 meters long that passes through the bodys ventral cavity.

mucosa

the inner layer of the ailmentary canal that is lined with epithelium and carries on secretion and absorption is called the ____________

submucosa

the _______________ is the middle layer of the ailmentary canal and made up of loose connective tissue, and houses blood and lymph vessels and nerves. It nourishes the surrounding layers of the canal

muscular

the ________ layer consists of inner circular fibers and outer longitudinal fibersthat propel food through the canal

serosa

___________ is the outer most layer of the canal and is made from visceral peritoneum that protects underlying tissues and secretes serous fluid to keep it from sticking to other tissues in the abdominal canal

mixing movements

movements of the tube that occur when smooth muscles contract rhythmically in small sections of the tube

propelling movements

wave like motions called peristalsis that are caused by contraction behind a mass of food as relaxation allows the mass to enter the next part of the tube

frenulum

attaches the tongue to the floor of the mouth

lingual tonsils

located on the roof of the tongue

palatine tonsils

located in the back of the mouth and help provide the body with protection from infection

pharyngeal tonsils

located in the posterior wall of the pharynx, above the border of the soft palate

salivary glands

produce amylase and mucous that lubricate and bind food. Salivary gland are triggered to produce saliva with the sight or smell of food

parotid glands

located in fornt of the ear and are the largest of the major salivary glands and produce a clear watery fluid rich in amylase

submandibular glands

located on the floor of the mouth and secrete a more viscous fluid

sublingual glands

located under the tongue and are the smallest of the major salivary glands. secrete a saliva that is thick and stringy

pharynx

the cavity lying behind the mouth, connects th nasal andoral cavities to the larynx and esophagus

papillea

______________ provide friction for moving food around in the mouth

lingual

___________ tonsils are lymphatic tissue located at the roof of the mouthamylase

palate

____________ forms the roof of the oral cavity and has an anterior hard _________ and a posterior soft __________

uvula

the _________ and the soft palate function together to close off the nasal cavity during swallowing

palatine

_________ tonsils are located in the back of the mouth and help protect the body from infection

pharyngeal

___________ tonsils are located in the posterior wall of the pharynx above the border of the soft palate

amylase, mucous

salivary glands contain serous cells that produce a watery fluid with_________ and __________ cells that produce lubricating and binding agents

parotid, amylase

__________ lay in front of the ear, ae the largest salivary glands, secrete clear watery fluid rich in ________

sublingual

____________ glands are inferior to the tongue and are the smallest of the salivary glands, and secrete thick and stringy salivia

submandibular

__________ glands are located on the floor of the mouth and secrete a more viscous fluid

pharynx, esophagus

___________ is the cavity lying behind the mouth, and the _______ is a muscular tube leading to the stomach

nasopharynx

------------- top portion of the phayrnx

oropharynx

___________ middle portion of the pharynx

laryngopharynx

___________ bottom portion of pharynx

pyloric

_________ sphincter controls the release of food from the stomach into the small intestine

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