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Irritation of the phrenic nerve may cause diaphragm spasms called hiccups
T/F

True

Light passes through the entire thickness of the neural layer of the retina to excite the photoreceptors.
T/F

True

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) includes the brain and spinal cord
T/F

False

The anterior chamber of the eye is filled with vitreous humor.
T/F

False

CNS nerve fibers lack the intrinsic capacity to regenerate, while PNS nerve fibers are able to regenerate.
T/F

True

Static equilibrium involves linear acceleration as well as changes in head rotation.
T/F

False

Eye color is determined by the amount of brown pigment present in the iris.
T/F

True

The Brain stem consists of __________.
A) midbrain, medulla, and pons
B) midbrain only
C) pons, medulla, cerebellum, and midbrain
D) cerebellum, pons, midbrain, and medulla

A) midbrain, medulla, and pons

Which meninx is delicate connective tissue membrane that clings tightly to the brain like a cellophane wrap following its every convolution?
A) arachnoid mater
B) penosteal layer of the dura mater
C) meningeal layer of the dura mater
D) pia mater

D) pia mater

What is the main function of the rods in the eye?
A) accommodation for near vision
B) vision in dim light
C) depth perception
D) color vision

B) vision in dim light

Which of the following taste sensations is incorrectly matched to the chemicals that produce it?
A) sour--acids
B) salty--metal ions
C) umami-triglycerides and fatty acids
D) sweet--organic substances such as sugar and some lead salts
E) bitter-alkaloids

C) umami-triglycerides and fatty acids

Which photoreceptors respond to very dim light?
A) blue cones
B) rods
C) green cones
D) red cones

B) rods

All processing at the circuit level going up to the perceptual level must synapse in the __________.
A) reticular formation
B) medulla
C) pons
D) thalamus

D) thalamus

Why might an individual experience the phenomenon know as "referred pain"?
A) When the pain associated with an injury is severe, the brain will shut down certain cognitive functions as a defense mechanism
B) Sensory nuclei in the thalamus become overwhelmed and send impulses to the wrong sensory cortex.
C) Because the eyes may detect an injury before it is sensed, the brain creates referred sensations of pain before there is an authentic sensory stimulus
D) Visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers

D) Visceral pain afferents travel along the same pathways as somatic pain fibers

Information from balance receptors goes directly to the _______
A) back muscles
B) brain stem reflex centers
C) motor cortex
D) visual cortex

B) brain stem reflex centers

Which accessory eye structures function to produce the tears that cleanse and protect the eye?
A) ceruminous glands
B) tarsal glands
C) conjunctiva
D) lacrimal glands

D) lacrimal glands

Which of the following cranial nerves carries only sensory information?
A) oculomotor
B) olfactory
C) trigeminal
D) abducens

B) olfactory

Patients who have lesions involving Broca's area _________
A) can communicate through writing or sign language, but they cannot speak
B) can understand language, but have difficulty speaking
C) do not understand language
D) do not understand written communications, but they can speak clearly and intelligibly

B) can understand language, but have difficulty speaking

_______ causes a person to lapse abruptly into REM sleep from the awake state.
A) Sleep apnea
B) Narcolepsy
C) Syncope
D) Epilepsy

B) Narcolepsy

Ordinarily, it is not possible to transplant tissues from one person to another, yet corneas can be translated without tissue rejection. This is because the cornea _______
A) is not a living tissue
B) has no nerve supply
C) does not contain connective tissue
D) has no blood supply

D) has no blood supply

Spinal nerves are all classified as _______.
A) sensory nerves
B) mixed nerves
C) afferent nerves
D) motor nerves

B) mixed nerves

Ridges of tissue on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres are called ______.
A) ganglia
B) gyri
C) sulci
D) fissures

B) gyri

Which part of the brain is the "executive suite" for all brain activity?
A) cerebral cortex
B) diencephalon
C) brain stem
D) cerebellum

A) cerebral cortex

The receptor organ for hearing is the ________
A) oval window
B) spiral organ (of Corti)
C) crista ampullaris
D) modiolus

B) spiral organ (of Corti)

If the ventral root of a spinal nerve were cut, what would be the result in the tissue or region that nerve supplies?
A) a complete loss of sensation and movement
B) a complete loss of voluntary movement
C) complete loss of sensation
D) loss of neither sensation nor movement but only of autonomic control

B) a complete loss of voluntary movement

Regeneration within the CNS ______
A) is prevented due to growth-inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes
B) is more successful than with the PNS
C) is promoted by growth inhibitors and glial scars
D) typically allows axonal sprouting of 20 mm

A) is prevented due to growth-inhibiting proteins of oligodendrocytes

Somatic reflexes activate ________
A) skeletal muscle
B) smooth muscle
C) cardiac muscle
D) glands

A) skeletal muscle

Nerves that only carry impulses away from the central nervous system (CNS) are called ________
A) sensory nerves
B) afferent nerves
C) mixed nerves
D) motor nerves

D) motor nerves

What cells line the ventricles of the brain?
A) epithelial cells
B) ependymal cells
C) astrocytes
D) neurons

B) ependymal cells

Which of the following best describes the cerebrum?
A) visceral command center
B) decussation center
C) motor command center
D) executive suite

D) executive suite

Even though we have two eyes, why do we normally see only one image?
A) only one eye views and image at a time
B) only the dominant eye (which corresponds to the dominant hand) is used in vision
C) information from each eye goes to both hemispheres for processing
D) one eye processes close images. The other eye processes images at a distance

C) information from each eye goes to both hemispheres for processing

What parts of the brain ultimately plan and coordinate complex motor activities?
A) cerebellum and basal nuclei
B) cerebrum, cerebellum, and basal nuclei
C) cerebrum and basal nuclei
D) cerebrum and cerebellum

A) cerebellum and basal nuclei

Potentially damaging stimuli that results in pain are selectively detected by ___________
A) proprioceptors
B) photoreceptors
C) nociceptors
D) interoceptors

C) nociceptors

Mixed cranial nerves containing both motor and sensory fibers include all except which of the following?
A) facial
B) trigeminal
C) oculomotor
D) olfactory

D) olfactory

Pressure, pain, and temperature receptors in the skin are _________
A) exteroceptors
B) proprioceptors
C) interoceptors
D) mechanoreceptors

A) exteroceptors

The receptor for static equilibrium is the _______
A) semicircular canals
B) utricle
C) cochlear duct
D) macula

D) macula

If retinal detachment occurs in the macula lutea, one can predict that there would be a significant loss of ______
A) color vision
B) dim-light vision
C) vision of objects in the peripheral regions of the visual field
D) all of the listed responses are correct

A) color vision

Which of the following does NOT occur as people age?
A) peripheral nerves die off
B) reflexes occur more slowly
C) muscle tone in the face and neck starts to decrease
D) sensory receptors atrophy

A) peripheral nerves die off

Receptors for hearing are located in the ___________
A) vestibule
B) semicircular canals
C) cochlea
D) tympanic membrane

C) cochlea

The receptors for smell are activated when________
A) mitral cells relay signals to the olfactory
B) olfactory cilia move mucus over the receptors
C) dissolved odorants bind to receptor proteins in the cilium membranes
D) the olfactory tracts transduce signals to the hypothalamus

C) dissolved odorants bind to receptor proteins in the cilium membranes

The majority of the cranial nerves attach to the _________
A) forebrain
B) brain stem
C) cerebellum
D) spinal cord

B) brain stem

The blind spot of the eye is where ________
A) the macula lutea is located
B) the optic nerve leaves the eye
C) only cones occur
D) more rods than cones are found

B) the optic nerve leaves the eye

The arbor vitae refers to ________
A) cerebellar gray matter
B) the pleatlike convolutions of the cerebellum
C) cerebellar white matter
D) flocculonodular nodes

C) cerebellar white matter

The final step in perceiving sound is _________
A) the tympanic membrane vibrates
B) the cochlear nerve is stimulated
C) the auditory cortex is stimulated
D) the cochlear hair cells are stimulated

C) the auditory cortex is stimulated

There are ____ pairs of cranial nerves.
A) 6
B) 8
C) 10
D) 12
E) 14

D) 12

Which of the following structures is not part of the external ear?
A) external acoustic meatus
B) pharyngotympanic tube
C) tympanic membrane
D) pinna

B) pharyngotympanic tube

Which middle ear ossicle is attached to, and transmit vibratory motion to, the oval window?
A) malleus
B) incus
C) anvil
D) stapes

D) stapes

Which of the following correctly matches the equilibrium receptor to the type of equilibrium it monitors?
A) maculae/dynamic equilibrium
B) maculae/static equilibrium
C) crista ampullaris/static equilibrium
D) saccule/dynamic equilibrium

B) maculae/static equilibrium

Which cranial nerve transmits information about our sense of equilibrium?
A) abducens
B) vestibulocochlear
C) optic
D) vagus

B) vestibulocochlear

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