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Sputnik

First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.

NASA

National Aeronautic and Space Administration - 1958; to get US back in running with the Soviets in space race

Brown v. Board of Education

Court ruled that segregation was unconstitutional, overturned Plessey v Ferguson.

With all Deliberate Speed

Surpreme Court desicion of Brown case, states should end segregation with all deliberate speed - soon, no time table

Massive Resistance

Virginia government's policy which fought to resist the integration of public schools

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

founded by MLK Jr., to fight segregation. passive resistance stressed nonviolence and peaceful confrontation.

Jackie Robinson

First African American to play in Major League Baseball

Baby Boom

the larger than expected generation in United States born shortly after World War II

Keynesian economics

Theory based on the principles of John Maynard Keynes, stating that government spending should increase during economic slumps and be decrease during good times for the economy.

Jimmy Hoffa

United States labor leader who was president of the Teamsters Union

Disneyland

an amusement park in Anaheim created in 1955 by Walt Disney

Levittown

A new York town of mass-produced homes, which became a symbol for many similar suburban towns built during the post- World War II years.

Jonas Salk

Developed polio vaccine

J. Robert Oppenheimer

leader of Manhattan project

National Defense Education Act

Passed in response to Sputnik, it provided an oppurtunity and stimulus for college education for many Americans. It allocated funds for upgrading funds in the sciences, foreign language, guidance services, and teaching innovation.

Multiversity

a university system having several separate campuses and colleges and research centers

The Organization Man

Written by William Whyte; attacked the way businesses wanted every employee to be just like the others to keep any individual from dominating or being a threat

The Lonely Crowd

Book written by David Riesman that criticized the people of the 50s who no longer made decisions based on morals, ethics and values; they were allowing society to tell them what is right and wrong.

Beats

a United States youth subculture of the 1950s

Saul Bellow

Canadian-born American Jewish writer. Novels that investigate isolation, spiritual dissociation, and the possibilities of human awakening. 'Herzog,' 'Seize the Day,' 'Henderson the Rain King.'

The Other America

book by michael harrington about poor americans. 1/5 living below poverty line

urban renewal

government programs for redevelopment of urban areas

john foster dulles

United States diplomat who (as Secretary of State) pursued a policy of opposition to the USSR by providing aid to American allies

roll back

The term used to describe Eisenhower's tough stance against communism, rolling it back to the USSR

38th parrallel

After WWII Korea divided into two parts . US south. Soviet north

Ho-Chi Minh

north vietnam leader

Dien Bien Phu

French military base fell after a 56-day siege by Vietnam troops

Shah of Iran

title for the former hereditary monarch of Iran

Gamal Abdul Nassar

took power in egypt following a military coup - ousted britain from the suez canal zone

Suez Crisis

July 26, 1956, Nasser (leader of Egypt) nationalized the Suez Canal, Oct. 29, British, French and Israeli forces attacked Egypt. UN forced British to withdraw; made it clear Britain was no longer a world power

Fidel Castro

Cuban socialist leader who overthrew a dictator in 1959 and established a Marxist socialist state in Cuba

Hungarian Revolution 1956

Led by students and workers. Forced soviet soldiers to leave and promised free election, renounced Hungary's military alliance with Moscow. The revolution was crushed by the Soviet Union.

Nikita Khrushchev

Soviet statesman and premier who denounced stalin

U-2 Incident

In which the Russians shot down a high altitude US spy plane over the Soviet Union; this incident exposed a secret US tactic for gaining information.

Televised presidential debates

forever altered the landscape of political campaigning. The Nixon-Kennedy debates were the first presidential debates to be broadcast to a nationwide television and radio audience. Millions of Americans watched or listened to the historic confrontation. (1960)

New Frontier

Kennedy's plan - supports civil rights, pushes for a space program, wans to cut taxes, and increase spending for defense and military

The Kennedy Round

was the sixth session of General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) trade negotiations held in 1964-1967 in Geneva, Switzerland. had four major goals: to slash tariffs by half with a minimum of exceptions, to break down farm trade restrictions, to strip away nontariff regulations, and to aid developing nations. Participation greatly increased over previous rounds. Sixty six nations, representing 80% of world trade attended the official opening on May 4, 1964 at the Palais des Nations.

The Great Society

LBJ's domestic policy that dealt with poverty and education.

Senator Barry Goldwater

Republican Senator from Arizona who ran for president in 1964 but lost to Johnson.

Office of Economic Opportunity

1965 - Part of the war on poverty, it was headed by R. Sargent Shiver, and was ineffective due to the complexity of the problem. It provided Job Corps, loans, training, VISTA, and educational programs.

Food Stamps

government- issued coupons that recipients exchange for food

Elementary and Secondary Education Act 1965

Extended educational aid to private and parochial schools while basing the aid given on students' economic conditions, rather than the schools themselves.

Immigration Act of 1965

abolished national origins quotas, dramatically increased immigration (especially from Asia and Latin America)

Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee

Involved in the American Civil Rights Movement formed by students whose purpose was coordinate a nonviolent attack on segregation and other forms of racism.

Congress Of Racial Equality

an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality

freedom rides

CORE members rode buses from Washington to Alabama trying to protest segregation

James Meredith

United States civil rights leader whose college registration caused riots in traditionally segregated Mississippi

Viet Cong

a Communist-led army and guerrilla force in South Vietnam that fought its government and was supported by North Vietnam.

Gulf of Tonkin Resolution

Resolution passed by the Senate in 1964 that allowed President Lyndon Johnson war-time powers whthout explicitily declaring war

Robert McNamara

Secretary of Defense from 1961 to 1968, during the Vietnam War

Guns and Butter

a phrase that refers to the trade offs that nations face when deciding whether to produce more or less of consumer or military goods

freedom summer

In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.

selma

a town in central Alabama - in 1965 it was the center of a drive to register black voters

de jure

literally, "by law"; legally enforced practices, such as school segregation in the South before the 1960s

de facto

actually existing or in effect, although not legally required or sanctioned

affirmative action

programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities

flexible response

Policy of having the option of using either nuclear or conventional forces in responce to a threat

missile gap

the difference in how much the United States had compared to how much the Soviet Union had.

the green berets

Elite unit of the U.S. Army specializing in counterinsurgency. 1952. They were active in the Vietnam War, and they have been sent to U.S.-supported governments around the world to help combat guerrilla insurgencies.

alliance for progress

U.S. foreign aid to Latin American nations to develop their economies and counteract the appeal of communism

leonid brezhnev

Seized power from Nikita Khrushchev and became leader of the Soviet Communist party in 1964. Ordered forces in to Afghanistan and Czechoslovakia.

tet offensive

1968; North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment

Eugene McCarthy

Liberal Democratic senator who announced that he would challenge Lyndon B Johnson for the presidential nomination. He determined that at least one Democrat enter the primaries on antiwar platform. He lost the election.

Robert Kennedy

Served as U.S. Attorney General from 1961-1964. He was also the younger brother of John F. Kennedy.

hubert humphrey

LBJ's vice president and McCarthy's opposition in 1968 primary after LBJ stepped down. won nomination; not presidency.

george wallace

racist gov. of Alabama in 1962 ("segregation now, segregation tomorrow, segregation forever"); runs for pres. In 1968 on American Independent Party ticket of racism and law and order, loses to Nixon; runs in 1972 but gets shot

silent majority

Phrase used by President Nixon to describe people who suppourted the government's Vietnam policies but did not express their opinons publicly.

peace with honor

A phrase U.S. President Richard M. Nixon used in a speech , to describe the Paris Peace Accord to end the Vietnam War.

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