Human Growth and Development

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Guidelines offered by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (2002) suggest that preschool children should engage in ________ of physical activity per day.

2 hours

As children move through the zone of proximal development (ZPD), they:

take the responsibility of the task they are learning from the adult who is helping them.

Which of the following emotions are not in the same "category" as the other three?

fear

Which of the following is not one of the main precepts of a child-centered kindergarten

the implementation of monitored structure is crucial for development of self-regulation

Myelination occurs in the brain when:

nerve cells become insulated with a layer of fat.

Compared to lower socioeconomic status (SES) parents, higher SES parents are more likely to:

emphasize delaying gratification.

Overall, the effects of television on childrens developments are

some positive, some negative

In order for children to take effective moral action, they need to be able to __________ and ________.

learn to identify others' emotional states; anticipate what will improve others' emotional states

Alicia and Jason are watching their two sons have a fight. One of the sons is almost 5 years old, and the other is just over 3 years old. According to research on parental response to sibling behaviors, which is the most likely response that Alicia and Jason will demonstrate?

They will do nothing at all

Which statement below summarizes Erik Erikson's view of how guilt, initiative, and conscience operate during the early childhood period?

Children's consciences make them feel guilty about some of the initiatives that they take

Dante is encouraged by his parents to control himself and delay gratification. His parents give him some say in the rules of the house and are more likely to talk to him when he makes a mistake than to use physical discipline. His parents are most likely:

of a higher socioeconomic status

Suzanne believes that helping children develop their independence while still placing appropriate boundaries and limits on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is probably a(n):

authoritative parent.

About ________ of parents who abuse their children were abused as children themselves.

one-third

Brendan is 3 years old. His parents are concerned because he is always running and jumping on things. He cannot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he still fidgets, bounces, and wiggles around. It is especially frustrating when Brendan will not sit still through dinner. Given what we know about child development, we would advise Brendan's parents to:

. be patient and recognize that Brendan is developing as a normal 3-year-old.

What changes were made to the Women, Infants, and Children program in 2009?

The program was adjusted to provide healthier foods to recipients.

Alicia is enrolled in a kindergarten where she spends much of her time in unstructured activity. She plays with different toys she chooses, and her teacher facilitates rather than teaches. What approach is Alicia's kindergarten using?

Montessori

Jean Piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational thought, so named because he believed that:

children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought.

When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost her puppy. Selena is exhibiting:

empathy

Sanjay and Ryan are 4-year-old friends. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their level of activity often aggravates their parents, we know that this activity will:

help the boys develop gross motor skills.

All of the following children are likely to be shorter than their peers, EXCEPT:

firstborn children

Guidelines offered by the National Association for Sports and Physical Education (2002) suggest that preschool childrenshould engage in _______of physical activity per day.

2 hours

As children move through the zone of proximal development (ZPD), they;

take the responsibility of the task they are learning from the adault who is helping.

Which of the following emotions are not the same "category" as the other three?

Fear

Which of the following is not one of the main precepts of a child centered kindergarten?

The implamentation of montitored structure is crucial for development of self-regulation.

Myelination occurs in the brain when

nerve cells become insulated with a layer of fat

Compared to lower socioeconomincs status (SES) parents, higher SES parents are more likely to:

Emphasize delaying gratification

Overall, the effects of television on some children's development are:

some positive, some negative

In order for children to take effective moral action, they need to be able to ___________and____________.

learn to identify others' emotional states; anticipate what will improve others' emotional states.

Alicia and jason are watching their two sons have a fight. One of the sons is almost 5 years old, and the other one is just over 3 years old. According to research on parental response to sibling behaviors, which is the most likelyresponse that Alicia and Jason will demonstrate?

They will do nothing at all.

Which statement below summarizes Erik Erikson's view of how guilty, initiative, and conscience operate during the early childhood period?

Children's consciences make them feel guilty about some of the inititatives that they take

Dante is encouraged by his parents to control himself and delay gratification. His parents give him some say in the rules of the house and are more likely to talk to him when he makes a mistake than to use physical discipline. His parents are most likely:

of a higher socioeconomic status

Suzanne believes that helping children develop their independece while still placing appropriate boundries and limits on their actions is the most important function of parenting. Suzanne is a(n):

authoritative parent

About _______of parents who abuse their children were abused as children themselves.

1/3

Brendan is 3 years old. His parents arre concerned because he is always running and jumping on things. He cannnot seem to sit still. Even when watching his favorite movie on TV, he still fidgets, bounces, and wiggles around. It is especially frustrating when Brendan will not sit still through dinner. Given what we know about child development, we would advise Brendan's parents to:

be patient and recognize that Brendan is developing as a normal 3 year old.

What changes were made to the Women, Infant and Children program in 2009?

The program was adjusted to provide healthier foods to recipients.

Alicia is enrolled in a kindergarten where she spends much of her time in uninstructed activity. She plays with different toys she chooses, and her teacher facilitates rather than teaches. What approach is Alicia's kindergarten using?

Montessori

Jean piaget claimed that children between the ages of 2 and 7 years are in a stage called preoperational though, so named because he believed that:

children at this age do not yet use mental operations in their thought

When her mother asks Selena why she feels so sad, Selena says it is because her best friend just lost her puppy. Selena is exhibiting:

empathy

Sanjay and Ryan are 4-year-old friends. When they are together, they often wrestle, run, race, push, and shove each other. Although their level of activitiy often aggravates their parents, we know that this activity will:

help the boys develop gross motor skills.

All of the following children are likely to be shorter than their peers, EXCEPT:

firstborn children

Reseach conducted by Ruth Chao (2001, 2005, 2007) suggests that:

the high control of "authortatian" Asian parents is best conceptualized as "training" and is distinct from the domineering control that is generally associated with authoritarian style of parenting

A child is categorized as obese if his BMI is above the ______ percentile for their age group.

97th

Marella and ricardo have recently had a very serious fight. THey pushed and smacked each other, and both ended up with bruises and black eyes. Theier young son, Juan, winessed the entire event. WHich of the following forms of child maltreatment would best describe this situation?

Emotional Abuse

Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children?

neglectful

A parent who denies, ignore, or tries to change the negative emotions of their children would be calles an:

emotional-dismissing parent

The theory of _______ refers to the idea that children can begin thinking about their own thought process.

Mind

Guidelines offered by the National Association for Sports and Physical Education (2002) suggest that preschool children should engage in ________of physical activity per day.

2 hours

According to Dunn (2007) there are three in=mportant aspects to sibling relationships. WHich of the following is not one of those points?

the age differences that exist in the relationship

When teachers adjust their level of support and guidance tot he level of skill of the student, it is called:

scaffolding

Lev Vygotsky differs from Jean Piaget in how he stresses the relative importancce of _________ for cognitive development.

social interaction

Approximately_________of lesbins are parents.

20%

Howie and his little sister, Stephie, are each given one large cookie. The mother breaks Stephie's cookie into four pieces to help her eat it more easily. Howie immediately begins to cry and says that it isn't fair for Stephie to get so many cookies when he only has one. Howie is showing a lack of

conservation

Which idea about divorce is best supported by available evidence?

A divorce may improve children's lives under some circumstances

Researches believe that after the age of 6 or 7 years, children become more reflectiveand less impulsive in their thinking, because they learn to pay less attention to what is _______ and more attention to what is _______.

salient; relavent

What are the long-term effects of being maltreated as a child?

depression, deliquincy, and substance abuse

Three-year-olds scribble all over the page, but 4-year-olds can make more precise drawings that adults can understand. This is because 4-year-olds have more highly developed:

fine motor skills

When looking at the heights and weights of preschool children, we know that:

there are ethnic differences

The social role theory of gender differences suggest that:

differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men in most cultures

Ursula just brought home her report card. SHe earned C's and D's in all of her classes. Ursula's mom's first response was "Oh, you must be very disappointed." Then, the two of them sat down and tried to determine why she was having difficulty and what they could do to help her get her grades up. They decided that Ursula would start seeing a tutor after school. Ursula's mom is most likely a(n):

authoritative parent

Tatia wants to know how good a tennis player she is. To determine this, she should play with:

her same-aged best friend

How does maternal employment outside of thehome affect children?

Children of working mothers engage in less gender stereotyping.

Approximately _________of gay men are parents.

10%

Which parenting style leads to social incompetence in children?

neglectful

Five-year-old Marta draws a picture with pretty lavender, purple, and blue colors intermixed with green, yellow, and brown. "Its a boat on the ocean at sunset, with whales jumping all around it!" she explans to her teacher. Marta is showing clear evidensce of :

symbolic function

In explaining the ability to conserve, Rochel Gelman focuses on _________, whereas Jean Piaget focused on________.

attention; centration

During early childhood, on average girls are _______than boys.

slightly smaller

THere are approxiately ________Montessori schools in the United States today?

4000

In talking with Grandma on the phone, little Marcelo suddenly exclaims, "Oh, look at that pretty red bird!" WHen his grandmother asks him to describe the bird, Marcelo says,"Out there, out there! RIght there, Grandma!" He finally gets frustrated and hangs up. This is an example of:

egocentrism

According to Erik Erikson, what is the "great govenor" of initiative?

conscience

The support that parents give each other in raising children, including cooridination of rules and parenting efforts, is called:

coparenting

The drawings that 3-year-old Sally creates tend to be rather inventive and include scribbled designs that represent people, houses, cars,dogs, and so on. WHich Piagetian stage/substage of cognitive development is Sally in?

symbolic function substage

The stage of preoperational thought lasts from age ________years until age _______years

2; 7

At what age will children generally learn to adapt their style of language use to the listner?

4 to 5 years of age

Same-sex boy peer groups are charcaterized by all the following, EXCEPT:

cooperative play

In general, which of the following best describes birth-order effects?

They are limited in predicting behavior considing the many other influencing factors.

All of the following have been found to be advantages for the participants of the Perry Preschool program, except:

higher college graduation rates

Themost frequent criticism of early childhood intervention programs is that

many of them are of questionable quality

At what age will children generally learn to adapt their style of language use to the listner?

4 to 5 years of age

By the end of early childhood, boys have _______, whereas girls have _______..

more muscle; more fat.

Which of the following is NOT one of the stated goals of a developmentally appropriate practise?

better physical health

At what age do children show a preference to spend time with a same-sex playmate?

around 3 years old

Research linking corporal punishment and child behavior hasbeen associated with all of the following, EXCEPT:

higher levels of moral internalization

According to ErikErikson, the psychosocial stage that characterizes early childhood is

initiative versus guilt

Brendan s just learning to walk. He can take a few steps by imself if he uses both hands to hod on to a piece of furniture for support, but he can walk out into the middle of the room only if oneof his parents holds his hands. Which of the folllowing represents the lower limit of Brendan's zone of prximal development (ZPD) for walking

Brendan walking alone by holding on to a piece of furniture with one hand

Children's shows like Sesame Street are

good at modeling prosocial behaviors for children

Project _______is a program designed to break the cycle of poverty and oor education for children form economically disadvantaged backgrounds.

Head Start

A toddler is likely to learn something in the zone of proximal development (ZPD) if:

the task is more difficult that the child can do alone

WHich of these is TRUE of gender schema theory

This theory states how idea of gender appropriateness are developed.

According tot the textbook, many deaths of young children around the world could be prevented by

reducing poverty and improving nutrition, sanitation, education, and heath services

The term "child maltreatment" includes all but which f the following pssibilities?

tough love

An overwhelming worldwide health concern in the last decade has been death as a result of

acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

What is morphology?

THe units of meaning involved in word formation

In a recent national survey of U.S. parents with 3- to 4-year old children, about _____________ reported that they frequently spanked their children

26%

Research linkin corporal punishment and child behavior has been associated with all of the following, EXCEPT

higher levels of moral internalization

In response to child misbehavior, most psychologists recommended

all of these

When Travis decided he wanted to catch a bird with a butterfly net, his parents encourages him to test out his idea. Because his parents supported his plan, he will probably grow up with

initiative

In general, conservation involves the ability to understand that changes in physical arrangement

are irrelevant for the total amount

Children cannot conserve because they coannot yet

reverse

Young children tend to believe that when a rule is broken, punishment will follow inevitably. This is referred to as belief in

immanent justice

If a mother wants to reduce the risk that her child will develop asthma, wheezing, and sleeping problems, she should

stop smoking

Children between the ages of 4 and 12 usually prefer to playin groups that are made up of

the same sex

In which of the following countries are adults most likely to report that their parents used corporal punishment?

Canada

Researchers believe that after the age of 6 or 7 years, children become more reflective and less impulsive in their thinking, because they learn to pay less attention to what is __________and more attention to what is _________.

salient; relevant

Maurcio has been having difficulties in his preschool classroom, and his teacher notes on his report card that she has noticied deficits in the area of planning and inhibition. What is the term that might encapsulate these mental skills?

executive function

For Jean Piaget, failing a conservation task indicates that the child is

demonstrating morality

Katrina becomes extremely upset when her brother tries to change the rules of thier game, yelling, "You can't do that! You can't change the rules!" Katrina is exhibiting which of the following types of moral reasoning?

heteronomous morality

Which of the following is NOT a marked change in emotional development during early childhood?

Children can deceive others with their emotions

Using props, plots, and roles in play is characteristic of

pretense/symbolic play

Which of the following best describes the realtion between centration and conservation?

Lack of conservation is reflected in centration

Which child will find the task of arranging objects in a precise pattern on a table most challenging?

3 year olds

Which type of classrooms has been found in research to enhance advanced writing skills, and improve self-regulatory and cognitive control skills in at-risk preschool children?

Tools of the Mind classrooms

Four-year-old Becky has just hit her sister again. What should becky's mom do? Most develomental psychologists would suggest

explain to Becky that "hitting hurts"; she is old enough to understand the consequences of he behavior.

Dr. Widaman is researching the cultural differences in school performances between Japanese and American children. He is comparing math scores between two groups of fifth graders. One of his groups is from Japan and the other group is from the United States. Dr Widaman is conductiong a ____________study?

cross-cultural

Which of the following is a correct staement regarding heredity-environment interaction?

Genetic loading and complex environments combine in development

Sequoia is pregnant and drinks deavily 3 to 4 days a week. Her unborn child is at risk for developing

a fetal alcohol spectrum disorder

What soes Popeye have in common with a pregnant women?

They both benifit from eating spinach

Mary's parents fight quite often over money. In an attempt to stop the fighting and to save the family money, Mary has decided that she will not ask for anything for her birthday or any holiday. Mary's actions are being expressed in which of the Bronfenbrenner's system?

microsystem

The structure of Miss Darby's elementary classroom in New York City is based on the sociocultural cognitive theory of Lev Vygotsky. Her classroom would likely be characterized by all but which of the following?

She assigns much individual independent seatwork

As opposed to physicians, daulas tend to

spend more time with mothers and give more emotional support

During which period of development is the unborn baby MOST AT RISK of developing a structural defect because of the effects of a teratogen?

during the embryonic period

Professor Offord wants t assign subjects to experimental groups in such a way that each subject has an equal chance of being in any group. The best way to assign subjects is

randomly

This is a prenatal medical procedure where a samle of amniotic fluid is withdrawn by syringe and tested for chromosomal or metabolic disorders.

amniocentisis

Julia is currently 2 years old. She is learning how to talk, and her parents would say that her favorite word is "no." This would be considered normal for a child in Erik Erikson's stage of

autonomy versus shame and doubt

After completing a study, a researcher must inform all the participants of the purpose and the results of the study. This mandated by what APA ethical concepts?

debriefing

One of the differences between Sigmund Freud and Erik Erikson is that

Erik Erikson saw that development occured throughout the life span

Which of the following disorders is LEAST likely to happen to a mother 16 - 34 years old

Down Syndrome

Biology is to ______as environment is to ________.

nature ; nurture

In an experimental design, the dependent variable

can change only in response to a change in the independent

River has a round face, a flattened skull, an extra fold of skin over her eyelids, a thickened tongue, short limbs and retardation of motor and mental abilities. She is likely to have been born with

down syndrome

Nellie bangs her head against the wall repeatedly throughout the day. B.F. Skinner would say that the best way to solve this problem is to

reward Nellie when she does not bang her head, and punish the head-banging behavior

Which of the following animals has the largest brain

Gorilla

Which of the following is more likely to occur in the child of a woman who smoked

attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

A goodness of fit occurs when a child's temerament matches

environmental demands

The ________method of studying whether an infant can distinguish between two objects is done by measuring the length of time the infant looks at an object.

visual prefernce

Evidence that supports the idea that emotions have strong biological foundation includes all of the following EXCEPT

men and women share basic emotions

Infant's ability to regulate their emotions is positively correlated with

their age

Jean Piaget believed that children

actively construct their own cognitive as different cognitive abilities develop

Cases such as the "WildBoy Adveyron" and "Genie" cause us to wonder whether language is

a result more of heridity or of environment

A nerve cell in the brain is also called a

neuron

Babies have three types of cries. Which of the following is NOT one of them?

THe hunger cry

Not until an infant s _______will his or her visual acuity approximate that of an adult with normal vision

1 year old

Which of the following occurs FIRST in development

reflexive smiling

Melissa is 2 weeks old. She sleeps about 16 hours a day. SHe

is typical of 2-week-old babies in her sleeping patterns

A form of communication that is based on a system of symbols is called

language

According to Erik Erikson, which of the following is TRUE concerning children and autonomy?

Chidren feel excessive shame and doubt if consistantly overprotected or critisized

At what age does seperation protest peak?

13-15 months

Juanita notes that some days with her baby are harder than others. "When I'm rested, he laughs and plays, and then i fell even better. But when I'm tired, it seems that he is crankier than eve, and then I get even crankier, and it just gets worse!" THese differences are the result of

reciprocal socialization

Daniel and Guadalupe are angry with one another because of differences in their spending habits. Guadalupe snaps ar their daughter and sends her to her room even though the little girl is not misbehaving. According to Jay Belsky's description of family interactions, this situation is an example of

an inderect influence of the marital relationship on the child

Two month old Trey is crying loudly, His cry starts with a piercing shrill sound. Then there is a long period during which Trey holds his breath (turning red) and then the next crying sound comes out. This type of cry indicates that Trey is

in pain

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