Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns.
The concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and, in most cases, cured.
The American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition), a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD)
An anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal.
An anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pains, chiking, or other frightening sensations.
An anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsesson) and/or actions (compulsions).
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
An anxiety disorder associated with serious traumatic events and characterized by such symptoms as survivor guilt, reliving the trauma in dreams, numbness and lack of involvement with reality, or recurrent thoughts and images.
Fear of interacting with others or being in social situations that might lead to a negative evaluation.
Disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated (dissociated) from previous memories, thoughts, and feelings.
Inability to remember either isolated parts of the past or one's entire past; may be caused by brain damage or severe emotional trauma.
A disorder in which people lose their memory for their entire lives along with their sense of personal identity.
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
A rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities. Also called multiple personality disorder.
Psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes.
Major Depressive Disorder
A mood disorder in which a person, for no apparent reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminishes interest or pleasure in most activities.
A mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state.
A mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania.
Any of several psychotic disorders characterized by distortions of reality and disturbances of thought and language and withdrawal from social contact.
A false belief or opinion.
A false sensory perception that seems to be real but for which there is not an actual external stimulus.
Psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning.
Antisocial Personality Disorder
A type of personality disorder marked by impulsive, callous, manipulative, aggressive, and irresponsible behavior that reflects a failure to accept social norms.