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Justinian

Byzantine emperor who held the eastern frontier of his empire against the Persians

Theodora

The wife of Justinian, she helped to improve the status of women in the Byzantinian Empire and encouraged her husband to stay in Constntinople and fight the Nike Revolt.

Procopius

Historian of the Byzantine Empire who in his Secret History revealed the cruelty of the autocratic system in which the emperor ruled by divine providence.

mehmet II

7th sultan ruler of the Ottoman Empire, captured Constantinople (Istanbul) (The Byzantine Empire)

cyril

Byzantine missionary that was sent to Russia to spread Orthodoxy; created Slavic Cyrillic script

methodius

Along with Cyril, missionary sent by Byzantine government to eastern Europe and the Balkans; converted southern Russia and Balkans to Orthodox Christianity; responsible for creation of written script for Slavic known as Cyrillic.

olga of kiev

Igors wife, took succession after his death but was a regent. Converted to Christianity and wanted a church but not to govern the country

vladimir

Russian ruler who chose Byzantine Christianity as the official religion of the Russian state

ivan the great

Ivan III, was the Grand Duke of Moscow, ended Mongol domination of his dukedom, extended territories, subdued nobles, and attained absolute power; made Moscow the center of a new Russian state with a central government

ivan the terrible

(1533-1584) (ivan 3) earned his nickname for his great acts of cruelty directed toward all those with whom he disagreed. He became the first ruler to assume the title Czar of all Russia.

batu khan

the grandson of Ghengis Khan, the first Mongol to invade Russia; Kiev fell to him, and Russian cities became dependent, tribute-paying principalities of the Mongol empire

muhammad

the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)

abu bakr

Companion of 1st muslim leader after Muhammad. Regarded by Sunni's as the 1st caliph and rightful succesor. The Shi'ah regard him as a traitor of Muhammad. Known as best interpretter of dreams following Muhammad's death.

avicenna

Arabian philosopher and physician

firdawsi

wrote the Shah Namah, or Book of Kings, that told the history of Persia

omar khayyam

Persian poet and mathematician and astronomer whose poetry was popularized by Edward Fitzgerald's translation (1050-1123)

ibn rushd

Muslim philosopher who blended Aristotle and Plato's views with Islam

ibn khaldun

Arab historian. He developed an influential theory on the rise and fall of states. Born in Tunis, he spent his later years in Cairo as a teacher and judge. In 1400 he was sent to Damascus to negotiate the surrender of the city.

al-khwarizmi

muslim mathematician who created the technique of "al-jabr" or algebra

muhammad al-razi

the head physician of Baghdad's chief hospital, wrote many books including on measles and small pox, challenged and accepted medical practices

ibn sina

Islamic physician, wrote a book called Canon on Medicine, which was an encyclopedia of Greek, Arabic, and his own knowledge of medicine. This book became the standard medical text in Europe for over five hundred years.

nika rebellion

in 532, the Blues and the Greens (opposite sides, participants in chariot races) 6were angry with the government so they rioted in the hippodrome, but Belisarius and his men broke in and slaughtered 30,000 rebels

Constantinople

Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire from Rome.

justinian's code

Laws of the byzantine empire based the twelve tables of Roman law, became a basis for laws in many European nations

autocrat

a person with unlimited influence and authority (usually a negative word)

patriarch

the male head of family or tribe

icon

a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface

great schism

a period of division in the Roman Catholic Church, 1378-1417, over papal succession, during which there were two, or sometimes three, claimants to the papal office

steppe

extensive plain without trees (associated with eastern Russia and Siberia)

taiga

biome in which the winters are cold but summers are mild enough to allow the ground to thaw

kiev

capital and largest city of the Ukraine

slavs

a people from the forests north of the Black Sea, ancestors of many peoples in Eastern Europe today., the group of people in southeastern Europe who were the same ethnic group as the Russians

the primary chronicle

a history of Russia written by monks in the early 1100s

cyrillic

an alphabet drived from the Greek alphabet and used for writing Slavic languages

tsar

a male monarch or emperor (especially of Russia prior to 1917)

czar

a male monarch or emperor (especially of Russia prior to 1917)

golden horde

a Mongolian army that swept over eastern Europe in the 13th century`1

balkan peninsula

a large peninsula in southeastern Europe containing the Balkan Mountain Range

ethnic group

people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture

diet

the usual food and drink consumed by an organism (person or animal) die with a t.

golden bull of 1222

charter that strictly limited royal power in Hungary

Bedouin

Nomadic pastoralists of the Arabian peninsula; culture based on camel and goat nomadism; early converts to Islam.

mecca

City in western Arabia; birthplace of the Prophet Muhammad, and ritual center of the Islamic religion.

yathrib

A city Muhammad and his followers visited after death threats to Muhammad (later named Medina)

hijra

The Migration of Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam

medina

City in western Arabia to which the Prophet Muhammad and his followers emigrated in 622 to escape persecution in Mecca. (p. 231)

kaaba

(Islam) a black stone building in Mecca that is shaped like a cube and that is the most sacred Muslim pilgrim shrine

qur'an

the sacred writings of Islam revealed by God to the prophet Muhammad during his life at Mecca and Medina

mosque

(Islam) a Muslim place of worship

five pillars

Basic rules of Islam. 1. Profession of faith 2. Pray five times a day 3. Give alms (give money) 4. Ramadan fast 5. Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).

hajj

the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah

jihad

a holy struggle or striving by a Muslim for a moral or spiritual or political goal

sharia

the code of law derived from the Koran and from the teachings and example of Mohammed

social mobility

The ability of individuals to move from one social standing to another. Social standing is based on degrees of wealth, prestige, education and power.

calligraphy

the art of fine handwriting

sunni

a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad

shi'a

the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad

sufis

a mystical Muslim group that believed they could draw closer to God through prayer, fasting, and a simple life

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