Nutrition Chapter 8 & 9

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About Nutrition 12th edition

A

The yearly death toll in the United States from obesity-related diseases is estimated at
Answer

300,000.

1 million.

10 million.

20 million.

D

Approximately what percentage of weight loss during starvation is lean body mass?
Answer

0

20

35

50

C

Ben is worried that his family history of heart disease and his BMI of 28 are putting him at very high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. What would a clinician advise Ben to help lower his risk?
Answer

Take steps to raise the LDL and lower the HDL

Consider liposuction surgery for removing extra abdominal fat

Lose weight as it can lower both blood cholesterol and blood pressure

Obtain genetic testing to determine the exact percent chance of developing cardiovascular disease

C

What fraction of the day's energy expenditure of the average person is represented by the basal metabolism?
Answer

About 1/10

Up to 1/2

About 2/3

Over 9/10

D

If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, the dancer will be heavier because she has
Answer

more body fat.

stronger bones.

stronger muscles.

more muscle mass.

A

What is the approximate body mass index of a woman who is 5'5" and 125 lbs?
Answer

21

26

31

36

A

The feeling of satisfaction resulting from consumption of a meal is termed
Answer

satiety.

appetite.

postabsorptive hunger.

resting postabsorptive increment.

A

Among the following, which has the greatest power to suppress hunger?
Answer

Apples

Peanuts

Doughnuts

Potato chips

C

Among people with anorexia nervosa, approximately what percentage are males?
Answer

5

15

25

50

C

Waist circumference can best be used to assess
Answer

BMI.

total body water.

abdominal fat stores.

subcutaneous fat stores.

A

For people who wish to lose weight, most experts might advise them to
Answer

consider eating more vegetarian protein sources.

stay at the top of the Food Guide Pyramid for food choices.

focus on the middle of the Food Guide Pyramid for choices.

eat only plant-based proteins, completely eliminating meat.

A

A person who exhibits a physiological need to eat is most likely experiencing the sensation of
Answer

hunger.

appetite.

stress eating.

neuropeptide Y suppression.

A

Which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?
Answer

Fever

Fasting

Sleeping

Malnutrition

C

About how long does it take for a meal to be completely eliminated from the stomach?
Answer

30 minutes

1.5 hours

4 hours

8 hours

C

The major cause of insulin resistance is related to
Answer

low-protein diets.

high-protein diets.

excess body weight.

prolonged excess carbohydrate intake.

D

All of the following are an association between type 2 diabetes and body fat except
Answer

people with the disease often have central obesity rather than lower-body obesity.

a woman who has gained 12 pounds since age 18 has doubled her risk of developing the disease.

an obese person is 3 times more likely to develop the disease than is a nonobese individual.

overweight people with the disease who lose weight show no improvement in glucose tolerance and insulin resistance.

A

What is the primary factor that differentiates bulimia nervosa from binge eating?
Answer

Purging is rarely practiced in binge-eating disorder

Higher rates of depression are reported in bulimia nervosa

More food is consumed at one setting in binge-eating disorders

Uncontrollable cravings for high-fat foods are seen only in bulimia nervosa

A

An index of a person's weight in relation to height is called
Answer

body mass index.

height to weight index.

ideal body weight index.

desirable body weight index.

C

After consuming a very large meal, the desire to eat a slice of chocolate cake is an example of behavior known as
Answer

satiety.

hunger.

appetite.

pigging out.

D

What would be the approximate weight gain of a person who consumes an excess of 500 kcalories daily for one month?
Answer

0.5 lb

2 lbs

3 lbs

4 lbs

C

Jacki, who has a sedentary lifestyle, is 5'5" tall and weighs 165 lbs. She calculated her BMI to be 27.5. She recognizes that her body weight is unhealthy and vows to improve her eating habits and begin a regular program of physical fitness. Her goal is to achieve a BMI of 22. Approximately how much weight (lbs) must she lose?

B

You are planning a diet for a hospitalized patient who cannot participate in physical activity because both of his legs are broken and he will be bedridden for 6 weeks. Which of the following would best assess the patient's energy expenditure?
Answer

Body composition

Basal metabolic rate

Physical activity level

Adaptive thermogenesis

D

Reasons why people choose to become vegetarians include
Answer

ethical issues surrounding animal rights.

personal health reasons.

weight loss.

any of the above.

B

In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
Answer

Neck

Abdomen

Hips and thighs

Arms and shoulders

C

In an adult who gains 20 pounds of excess body weight, about how much of this is lean tissue?
Answer

0 lbs

2 lbs

5 lbs

10 lbs

A

Among the following, which is the most important strategy for an underweight person who wishes to achieve a healthy body weight?
Answer

A high-kcalorie diet plus regular exercise

A high-kcalorie diet and minimal exercise

A high-protein diet plus regular exercise

Total elimination of alcohol and exercise

D

In the quest for achieving desirable body weight, adults have control over all of the following except
Answer

diet.

behavior.

physical activity.

adipocyte number.

C

All of the following are characteristics of food portion sizes except
Answer

they are both high in fat and large in size at restaurants.

they have increased in general and this change parallels the increasing prevalence of obesity.

reducing portion size has a bigger impact than reducing energy density as a means of lowering total energy intake.

they have increased most notably at fast-food restaurants compared with conventional eating establishments.

B

A person who weighs 150 lbs. and walks at a pace of 3 miles/hr expends about how many kcalories in that hour?
Answer

115

270

410

850

B

Which of the following is a feature of physical inactivity and energy balance?
Answer

There is a strong genetic component to reduced physical activity of overweight people

Differences in the time obese and lean people spend lying, sitting, standing, and moving account for about 350 kcalories per day

Although watching television correlates with weight gain, playing video games does not, presumably due to the heightened excitement engendered by action games

Extraordinarily inactive people who lower their food intakes below that of their lean counterparts activate brown adipose tissue uncoupling proteins that stimulate hyperthermic weight loss

A

Clinically severe obesity is also known as
Answer

morbid obesity.

metabolic syndrome.

leptin-resistant obesity.

psychological-resistant syndrome.

D

All of the following are behavior modifications for losing weight except
Answer

shopping only when not hungry.

eating only in one place and in one room.

participating in activities such as television viewing only when not eating.

taking smaller portions of food but always eating everything on the plate quickly.

A

What is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people?
Answer

0.5-2 lbs/week

3-4 lbs/week

5% body weight/month

10% body weight/month

C

What is the chief reason that health-care professionals advise people to engage only in low-to-moderate intensity activities for prolonged duration rather than more intense, shorter routines?
Answer

Cost is lower

Boredom is reduced

Compliance is better

Monitoring time is diminished

B

Which of the following would be most effective at lowering energy intake in a person on a weight reduction program?
Answer

Decrease portion size

Select less energy-dense foods

Restrict fiber intake as a means to reduce excess water retention

Consume a small high-fat snack before each meal to reduce appetite

D

Fad diets often produce weight loss, at least initially, because
Answer

they dictate the correct distribution of energy among the macronutrients.

they prevent rapid spikes and declines in one's blood glucose level.

they don't require people to count kcal, and are thus easier to stick to.

they are designed to limit energy intake to around 1200 kcal/day.

C

Television watching contributes to obesity for all of the following reasons except
Answer

it promotes inactivity.

it promotes between-meal snacking.

it replaces time that could be spent eating.

it gives high exposure to energy-dense foods featured in the commercial advertisements.

B

An important aid in any weight-loss diet program is to
Answer

decrease water intake.

increase physical activity.

speed up thyroid activity with metabolic enhancers.

develop ketosis by keeping carbohydrate intake as low as possible.

B

As a new assistant in a weight-loss research laboratory, you are given a tour of the mouse laboratory. Why is the leptin-deficient mouse much larger than its leptin-sufficient counterpart?
Answer

Leptin deficiency causes lower levels of ghrelin

Leptin deficiency enhances appetite and decreases energy expenditure

Leptin deficiency causes psychological depression, which leads to increased food intake

Leptin deficiency reduces the desire to do physical activity, resulting in more excess energy available for fat storage

D

What is the best approach to weight loss?
Answer

Avoid foods containing carbohydrates

Eliminate all fats from the diet and decrease water intake

Greatly increase protein intake to prevent body protein loss

Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure

B

Which of the following is a feature of the body's response to engaging in physical activity?
Answer

After an intense and vigorous workout, metabolism remains elevated for several hours

Lower body fat is more readily lost from vigorous exercises that work primarily the hip and leg muscles

Blood glucose and fatty acid levels are low immediately after working out, but thereafter recover on their own

After an intense workout, most people immediately feel the urge to eat a large carbohydrate meal to replace glycogen stores

D

Which of the following is not a characteristic of obese people?
Answer

Obese people often have feelings of rejection

Most obese people do not maintain their weight losses

In many cultures, obesity is viewed as a sign of robust health

Most weight-loss programs that use state-of-the-art techniques allow for long-term weight loss

B

What is the classification of a person who is 6 feet 4 inches tall and 202 lbs?
Answer

Underweight

Healthy weight

Overweight

Obese

D

Which of the following does not represent a common environmental influence on eating behaviors?
Answer

Eating while viewing television promotes overconsumption

Socializing with strangers during a meal often leads to reduced food intake

The mere sight of food can signal a person to commence eating, regardless of hunger

Being in a pleasant atmosphere often lengthens the time of the meal but not the amount of food eaten

B

Approximately how many kcalories are expended per kilogram body weight when walking a mile at a moderate pace?
Answer

0.1

1

2.5

5

A

Tom was overweight when he was 13. During puberty he continued to gain weight steadily until at age 23, when he decided to lose weight. Tom successfully lost 50 pounds. Which of the following most likely happened to Tom's fat cells?
Answer

They shrank in size but did not decrease in number

They melted away when he burned all the excess fat

They decreased in number but did not decrease in size

They changed very little since fat cells shrink only with a weight loss greater than 100 pounds

D

What is the chief factor that determines a person's susceptibility to obesity?
Answer

Heredity only

Environment only

Fat content of diet

Heredity and environment

D

Over-the-counter products labeled as "dieter's tea" are reported to lead to
Answer

leptin resistance.

ketone poisoning.

cravings for protein.

nausea and diarrhea.

A

All of the following are associations between the environment and food intake except
Answer

distractions generally appear to reduce food intake.

the greater the number of foods at a meal, the more likely people will overeat.

the mere sight or smell of food prompts people to commence eating even if they are not hungry.

small portions of food on large plates lead people to underestimate the amount of food eaten.

C

In a weight reduction regimen, the most realistic time frame for losing 10% of initial body weight is
Answer

6 weeks.

3 months.

6 months.

1 year.

D

Which of the following is a feature of weight gain and genetics?
Answer

Obese people can change their genome but not their epigenome

Even mild exercise can minimize the genetic influence on weight gain

Genetics is the overwhelming factor that determines a person's risk for weight gain

Identical twins are twice as likely to weigh the same compared with fraternal twins

B

Jody is taking a nutrition class, and has been assigned to evaluate a popular diet plan. She finds a description of a plan for her assignment in a magazine at the grocery store. Which of the following statements in the magazine would suggest that this plan is an unsound, fad diet?
Answer

"Keep fresh fruit or carrot sticks in the fridge at work so you won't be tempted to raid the vending machine for a snack."

"Once you complete this 6-month plan, you'll never have to diet again."

"Starting an aerobic exercise plan may seem daunting, but you can start out with shorter, easier sessions and then build up to 3 or more hours a week."

"On this plan, you can lose up to 2 pounds per week!"

D

All of the following are features of the effect of food accessibility on food intake except
Answer

keeping food out of sight is an effective way to eat less.

people underestimate the amount of a snack eaten when it is a short distance away.

people eat more of a snack when it is on their desk than when situated only 6 feet away.

people at home would rather travel to the store to obtain new food than eat the leftovers.

A

What is a safe rate of weight loss on a long-term basis for most overweight people?
Answer

0.5-2 lbs/week

3-4 lbs/week

5% body weight/month

10% body weight/month

B

When consumed in high doses, which of the following is associated with modest weight loss in people?
Answer

Chitosan

Pyruvate

Yohimbine

Conjugated linoleic acid

B

Approximately how many kcalories are expended per kilogram body weight when walking a mile at a moderate pace?
Answer

0.1

1

2.5

5

A

Which of the following is the best evidence that environment must play a role in obesity?
Answer

The rate of obesity has been rising while the gene pool has remained relatively constant

The recognition that identical twins reared apart have body weights similar to their biological parents

The development of precise body composition methodologies that define adipose storage sites based on gender

The discovery of uncoupling proteins that explain the variations in energy metabolism among lean and overweight people

C

Question 8

What is the chief reason that health-care professionals advise people to engage only in low-to-moderate intensity activities for prolonged duration rather than more intense, shorter routines?
Answer

Cost is lower

Boredom is reduced

Compliance is better

Monitoring time is diminished

B

An example of a behavior modification technique for weight control is to
Answer

feel guilty after you overeat.

keep a record of your eating habits.

always clean your plate when you eat.

have someone watch you to prevent overeating.

B

The most likely explanation for why women readily store fat around the hips whereas men readily store fat around the abdomen is gender differences in
Answer

blood insulin levels.

the activity of lipoprotein lipase.

circulating lipid transport proteins.

the activity of lipoprotein synthetase.

A

Among the following, which is the most important strategy for an underweight person who wishes to achieve a healthy body weight?
Answer

A high-kcalorie diet plus regular exercise

A high-kcalorie diet and minimal exercise

A high-protein diet plus regular exercise

Total elimination of alcohol and exercise

C

What is the rationale for the fat cell theory of obesity?
Answer

Fat cell number increases dramatically after puberty

Fat cell number in an adult can decrease only by fasting

Fat cell number increases most readily in late childhood and early puberty

Weight gain from overeating in adults takes place primarily by increasing the number of fat cells

D

What is the best approach to weight loss?
Answer

Avoid foods containing carbohydrates

Eliminate all fats from the diet and decrease water intake

Greatly increase protein intake to prevent body protein loss

Reduce daily energy intake and increase energy expenditure

A

To help maximize the long-term success of a person's weight-loss program, which of the following personal attitudes should be encouraged in the individual?
Answer

Strongly believing that weight can be lost

Viewing the body realistically as being fat rather than thin

Refraining from expressing overconfidence in ability to lose weight

Accepting that little or no exercise is a part of the lifestyle of most overweight people

D

Which of the following does not represent a common environmental influence on eating behaviors?
Answer

Eating while viewing television promotes overconsumption

Socializing with strangers during a meal often leads to reduced food intake

The mere sight of food can signal a person to commence eating, regardless of hunger

Being in a pleasant atmosphere often lengthens the time of the meal but not the amount of food eaten

D

Which of the following defines the body's set point?
Answer

Minimum weight of a person

Maximum weight of a person

Point at which a person's weight plateaus before dropping again quickly

Point above which the body tends to lose weight and below which it tends to gain weight

B

A person who weighs 150 lbs. and walks at a pace of 3 miles/hr expends about how many kcalories in that hour?
Answer

115

270

410

850

B

Which of the following would be most effective at lowering energy intake in a person on a weight reduction program?
Answer

Decrease portion size

Select less energy-dense foods

Restrict fiber intake as a means to reduce excess water retention

Consume a small high-fat snack before each meal to reduce appetite

D

The feeling of satiety from weight-loss diets is best achieved by diets rich in
Answer

fat.

short-chain fats.

simple carbohydrates.

complex carbohydrates.

A

Clinically severe obesity is also known as
Answer

morbid obesity.

metabolic syndrome.

leptin-resistant obesity.

psychological-resistant syndrome.

D

Over-the-counter products labeled as "dieter's tea" are reported to lead to
Answer

leptin resistance.

ketone poisoning.

cravings for protein.

nausea and diarrhea.

A

Approximately how many kcalories per week should be expended in physical activity in order to maintain a weight loss?
Answer

2000

4000

6000

9000

A

Tom was overweight when he was 13. During puberty he continued to gain weight steadily until at age 23, when he decided to lose weight. Tom successfully lost 50 pounds. Which of the following most likely happened to Tom's fat cells?
Answer

They shrank in size but did not decrease in number

They melted away when he burned all the excess fat

They decreased in number but did not decrease in size

They changed very little since fat cells shrink only with a weight loss greater than 100 pounds

A

Obesity resulting from an increase in the number of fat cells is termed
Answer

hyperplastic obesity.

hypertrophic obesity.

idiopenthic leptinemia.

anaplastic hypometabolism.

B

What is the classification of a person who is 6 feet 4 inches tall and 202 lbs?
Answer

Underweight

Healthy weight

Overweight

Obese

D

Question 26

If a dancer and a typist are the same height and have the exact same body build, the dancer will be heavier because she has
Answer

more body fat.

stronger bones.

stronger muscles.

more muscle mass.

C

Waist circumference can best be used to assess
Answer

BMI.

total body water.

abdominal fat stores.

subcutaneous fat stores.

C

Which of the following is a characteristic of excess intra-abdominal fat?
Answer

It is more common in women than men

It is not as good an indicator of degenerative diseases as the BMI

It is found in smokers more often than nonsmokers even though smokers have a lower BMI

It is associated with increased risk for heart disease and diabetes in men but not in women

C

Jacki, who has a sedentary lifestyle, is 5'5" tall and weighs 165 lbs. She calculated her BMI to be 27.5. She recognizes that her body weight is unhealthy and vows to improve her eating habits and begin a regular program of physical fitness. Her goal is to achieve a BMI of 22. Approximately how much weight (lbs) must she lose?
Answer

21

27

33

41

D

People who consume a diet in which meat is the primary source of protein are
Answer

at less risk for cancer than vegetarians.

thought to be at greater risk for cancer than vegetarians.

more likely to develop heart disease than vegetarians.

b and c.

D

Which of the following factors has the most influence on the body's metabolic rate?
Answer

Age

Gender

Amount of fat tissue

Amount of lean body tissue

A

Which of the following does not decrease the metabolic rate?
Answer

Fever

Fasting

Sleeping

Malnutrition

A

For people who wish to lose weight, most experts might advise them to
Answer

consider eating more vegetarian protein sources.

stay at the top of the Food Guide Pyramid for food choices.

focus on the middle of the Food Guide Pyramid for choices.

eat only plant-based proteins, completely eliminating meat.

C

About how long does it take for a meal to be completely eliminated from the stomach?
Answer

30 minutes

1.5 hours

4 hours

8 hours

A

Protein intakes may increase as a result of illness as well as
Answer

when women are lactating.

during moderate anaerobic activity.

during times of optimal health.

any of the above.

A

A person who exhibits a physiological need to eat is most likely experiencing the sensation of
Answer

hunger.

appetite.

stress eating.

neuropeptide Y suppression.

A

Among the following, which has the greatest power to suppress hunger?
Answer

Apples

Peanuts

Doughnuts

Potato chips

A

Which of the following is a feature of the body mass index?
Answer

It correlates with disease risks

It decreases by 1 unit for every 10 years of life

It provides an estimate of the fat level of the body

It is defined as the person's height divided by the square of the weight

B

For every decade beyond the age of 30, what is the percentage decrease in the need for total kcalories?
Answer

2

5

10

15

C

Question 40

The major cause of insulin resistance is related to
Answer

low-protein diets.

high-protein diets.

excess body weight.

prolonged excess carbohydrate intake.

C

Question 41

Ben is worried that his family history of heart disease and his BMI of 28 are putting him at very high risk for developing cardiovascular disease. What would a clinician advise Ben to help lower his risk?
Answer

Take steps to raise the LDL and lower the HDL

Consider liposuction surgery for removing extra abdominal fat

Lose weight as it can lower both blood cholesterol and blood pressure

Obtain genetic testing to determine the exact percent chance of developing cardiovascular disease

D

Question 42

Reasons why people choose to become vegetarians include
Answer

ethical issues surrounding animal rights.

personal health reasons.

weight loss.

any of the above.

B

External cues that may cause an obese person to respond to food typically include all of the following except
Answer

TV commercials.

outdoor exercises.

availability of food.

"time of day" patterns.

C

All of the following are characteristics related to the fat content in food except
Answer

high-fat foods are energy dense.

fat has a weak effect on satiation.

eating high-fat foods typically leads to underconsumption of kcalories.

in the small intestine fat triggers release of a hormone that inhibits food intake.

A

An index of a person's weight in relation to height is called
Answer

body mass index.

height to weight index.

ideal body weight index.

desirable body weight index.

C

Which of the following is a characteristic of people with anorexia nervosa?
Answer

Most are aware of their condition and seek treatment

Fewer than 200 women die each year from the disease

Among those who are treated, many relapse into abnormal eating patterns

During initial treatment, metabolism slows and appetite increases but thereafter subsides

C

Which of the following is a feature of the basal metabolic rate (BMR)?
Answer

Fever decreases the BMR

Fasting increases the BMR

Pregnancy increases the BMR

Females have a higher BMR than males on a body weight basis

A

What is the approximate body mass index of a woman who is 5'5" and 125 lbs?
Answer

21

26

31

36

B

In what region of the body is the storage of excess body fat associated with the highest risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes?
Answer

Neck

Abdomen

Hips and thighs

Arms and shoulders

D

How can people reduce the amount of animal protein they eat daily?
Answer

Eat meat less often and in smaller portions.

Choose meat alternates as protein sources.

Select plant-based protein sources occasionally.

Any of the above.

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