" The ______ ___ gloried in ordinariness and made mediocrity a virtue." Jackson believed the ______ ___ was naturally good and could figure out everything himself. The ______ ___ was a self made man.
Central figure of the PETTICOAT AFFAIR---Social scandal (1829-1831) - Jackson's Secretary of War, stayed with a tavern owner's family when in Washington, and there were rumors of his affair with the daughter, _____ _____ , even before her husband died in 1828. Many cabinet member's wives snubbed the socially unacceptable Mrs. Eaton. Jackson sided with the Eatons, and the affair helped to dissolve the cabinet when Van Buren and the Secretary of War offered resignations, compelling those members associated with John C. Calhoun (V.P.), who was against the Eatons and had other problems with Jackson, to resign also.
Universal Male Suffrage
The right of all (white) males to vote, regardless of land ownership. _______ ____ ________ was adopted when Western States began altering voting laws to accommodate those who did not own land. This complies with Jackson's idea of the common man.
John C. Calhoun
Although _______ __. __________ was the Democratic Vice President, he hated Jackson. After recognizing that the Tariff of Abominations would bankrupt the South, he wrote the "South Carolina Exposition and Protest" He later resigns from the office of Vice President over the issue of the tariff and becomes a senator so he can fix the mess. He does this in March of 1833, but simultaneously give the president added power. Overall _________ ___. ________________ was know for his advocation for state's rights, limited government, and nullification.
To hurt the Bank of the United States, Jackson deposited government money in state banks known as ___________
Martin Van Burren
The "Little Wizard" was the Secretary of State during Jackson's 1st term. Also the 8th President of the US, _____ ____ _______ was unpopular because of the Panic of 1837 (caused by Jackson) . His attempts to pull the government out of the banking act with his "Independent Treasury System" and the "Treasury Act of 1840" continued to make him unpopular and climaxed with the Canadian Insurrection. He became known as Martin Van Ruin.
Worcester Vs. Georgia
cherokee appealed to supreme court to stop white encroachments into cherokee nation; marshal ruled in indians favor saying that only federal govt could do that and states had no authority over tribes
A nomination system in which the members of the party who are serving in Congress choose the party's candidate.
Nickname for the informal circle of advisors president Andrew Jackson relied on.
Second Reply to Hayne
Webster's response to the idea of nullification. Webster takes the side of his opponent but uses it to tear his original argument apart. He states that if a state can nullify an act of Congress it is essentially disbanding the union (what's the point to the union if the states can pick and choose). Therefore if someone advocates for nullification, thus disbanning, thus treason! Union is a compact between the people and the government not the states and the government.
Leader of a slave rebellion in 1831 in Virginia. Revolt led to the deaths of 20 whites and 40 blacks and led to the "gag rule' outlawing any discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives
Independent Treasury Act
In the wake of the Specie Circular and the Panic of 1837, President Van Buren proposed, and Congress passed this act. The system that was created took the federal government out of banking. All payments to the government were to be made in hard cash and it was to be stored in government vaults until needed.
Proclamation to the People of South Carolina
Jackson's edict stating nullification and disunion were treason
Indian Removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West. Enforced in 1838, lead to the Trail of Tears.
Webster Hayne Debate
This was the one major event of Jackson's Presidency that did not involve him. The _______ ________ _________ started in the senate and built into a sectional controversy over land reform. It gradually covered nullification (of the tariff). It started with Thomas Hart Benton (pro) and Samuel Foot (con) in the House on the topic of a bill to aid squatters. Benton believed that the squattors should have the first chance to purchase the land they are squatting on. Gradually things moved into the Senate where Robert ______ who took up Benton's argument, claimed that the East abused public power to cut off land sales and accused the East of cutting land sales so they could hold onto factory workers. He also said that the government was experiencing a surplus and didn't need the money from sales. Robert______ then brings up the tariff to try to gang the South and West up on the North. Daniel______ who was arguing on behalf of Samuel Foot, saw where the argument was going switched the topic to sectionalism and nullification. Robert________ takes this bate and the debate continues for the next thirty years. They become a spectator event. Robert_____'s main argument is that the Northern leaders are causing trouble by trying to use the government for their own good. States have the right to nullify federal laws.
"Log Cabin and Hard Cider"
- The election of 1840 in which William Henry Harrison and his party campaigned by the rolling log cabin parades and free cider during huge campaign events to convince everyone to vote for Tippecanoe and Tyler too
issued by President Jackson July 11, 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Cherokee Vs. Georgia
Cherokee sued Georgia to keep land, and john Marshall said that the supreme court had no jurisdiction over the case, because the Cherokees were dependent
A Cherokee native who had killed a fellow Cherokee. This was done within the Cherokee nation and he was convicted within the Cherokee nation. However, Georgia hung him. This was an unconstitutional intervention. However, Jackson did nothing to enforce the precedent of Worcester vs. Georgia.
Party Nominating Convention
where party politicians and voters would gather in a large meeting hall to nominate the party's candidates (Anti-Masonic Party was the first to do such a thing), replaced the king caucus
the right of people to rule themselves independently
States' Rights Doctrine
the idea that state governments were more powerful then the federal government.
Jackson's Nickname for Nicholas Biddle the director of the US Bank.
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
The __________ where mostly old National Republicans, rich Southerners, anti-Masons, conscience Whigs, angry former democrats (angry over Jackson's Former bank wars, anti internal improvements). The________ believed in Clay's National System, internal improvements federally funded, a national bank. They also have a "Favorite Sons Strategy" for the election of 1836, that involved Daniel Webster and Henry Clay getting more votes that Van Buren.
their philosophy war the stamp of Andrew Jackson, believing the federal government should be limited in power, except to a degree that it worked to eliminate social and economic arrangements that entrenched privilege and stifled equal opportunity.
Secretary of Treasury during Jackson's presidency, signed the document that killed the bank, later appointed Chief Justice.
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress.
President of the Second Bank of the United States; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
The practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs. Jackson made this practice famous for the way he did it on a wide scale.
Maysville Road Bill
In 1830 Congress tried to raise a tariff for the Cumberland Road but Jackson vetoed it. He then passed an executive order that a road that is just in one state needs to be financed by that state. This ticks off western farmers a TON! But Jackson gets back favor with Indian Removal.
Log Cabin Campaign
name given to William Henry Harrison's campaign for the presidency in 1840, from the Whigs use of a log cabin as their symbol
states have the right to declare national laws or actions null and void. John C. Calhoun (1860s) If Congress makes decision to ban slavery; the states have the right to declare that unconstitutional, null and void.
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.