Test 1- Recap Questions

76 terms by rjschehr Plus

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craniocaudally

How the long axis of the glenoid cavity is oriented in the Horse?

ruminants

What species does have an acromion?

ruminants

In which species the cranial parts of the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus are bent toward each other?

common digital extensor- extensor carpi radialis- abductor pollicis longus

List the tendons gliding in the grooves on the cranial aspect of the distal end of radius in a lateromedial direction

extensor retinaculum

What is the name of the structure bounding down the tendons on the cranial aspect of the distal end of the radius?

Row 1: accessory, ulnar, intermediate, radial
Row 2: C4, C2+3

List the carpal bones in Ru in a lateromedial direction:

intercapital notch

What is the name of the notch which separates the two sets of condyles at the distal end of the McIII+IV in Ru?

solear

What is the name of the surface of PIII in the Horse which comes in contact to the ground?

axial

What is the name of the aspect of the phalanges in Ru looking toward each other?

solear foramina

What is the name of the two foramina located on either side of the flexor surface of PIII in the Horse?

navicular bone

What is the other name given to the distal sesamoid bone in the Horse especially?

trochlearthrosis- flexion and extension

What type of joint the hock and the elbow are? What movements do they allow?

coracohumeral

What is the name of the only ligament (other than the joint capsule) of the shoulder joint in the Horse?

The attachments of several muscles replace the fibrous joint capsule (the synovial joint capsule remains)

Why the joint capsule of the elbow is shown only on the cranial aspect, between the two collateral ligaments?

accessorioulnar, accessoriocarpoulnar, accessorioquartal, accessoriometacarpal

List the four ligaments of the accessory carpal bone

palmar joint capsule of the carpal joint

What is the origin of the distal check ligament (of the DDF)?

collateral, distal, palmar, metacarpointersesamoid

List the major sesamoid ligaments in the Horse

interdigital intersesamoid, interdigital phalangosesamoid, proximal and distal interdigital

List the ligaments with the name "interdigital" in the Ru

dorsal and palmar

List the articular pouches of the fetlock joint in the Horse

over the palmar ligament, flexor surfaces of the proximal sesamoid bones

Where the proximal scutum attaches to?

SDF, DDF

Which tendons glide upon the proximal scutum?

palmar side of PII proximally

Where the middle scutum attaches to?

DDF

Which tendon glides upon the middle scutum?

flexor aspect of the navicular bone

Where the distal scutum attaches to?

DDF

Which tendon glides upon the distal scutum?

collateral (lateral and medial) and distal (impar)

List the ligaments of the navicular bone in the Horse

transverse pectoral

Which muscle is the tensor of the superficial antebrachial fascia?

proper (deep) antebrachial fascia

The extensor and flexor retinacula belong to the following fascia:

palmar annular, proximal digital annular, distal digital annular

List the ligaments of the digital fascia

supraspinatus

Which muscle of the shoulder is the only extensor of the shoulder joint?

deltoideus, teres major

List the tandem of muscles doing the flexion of the shoulder:

axillary

What nerve supplies the flexor muscles of the shoulder?

coracobrachialis

Which muscle of the shoulder originates by a tendon?

biceps brachii

Whose muscle the lacertus fibrosus belongs to?

biceps brachii, brachialis

List the flexor muscles of the elbow:

extensor of the elbow when limb is off the ground, propulsor with the limb of the ground

Which are the two actions of the triceps brachii muscle?

common and lateral digital extensors

List the muscles of the craniolateral aspect of the forearm with distal action

CT between DDF tendon and distal sesamoid ligg, supports vessels nurturing tendons

What is a vinculum?

flexor carpi ulnaris

Which muscle of the caudiomedial aspect of the forearm originates from the ulna and the humerus?

a fibrous attachment of the SDF to the mediocaudal aspect of distal third of radius in the Horse

What is the proximal check/accessory ligament?

CT bridge between the DDF tendon and the middle of palmar aspect of PII- separates the distal digital tendon sheath from the navicular bursa

What is the transverse lamina and what is its importance?

lateral and medial

Name the tendons of the common digital extensor muscle in Ru

lateral tendon

Which tendon of the common digital extensor bifurcates to attach to the symmetrical extensor processes of PIII?

6 (1 proximal, 1 distal, 2 symmetrical proximo-lateral and medial, 2 symmetrical disto-lateral and medial)

How many tendinous pouches are there associated with the distal digital tendon sheath?

the palmar articular from the proximal pouch of the distal digital tendon sheath

What pouches/recesses does the interosseous medius separate from each other?

SDF and DDF tendons surrounded by a common tendon sheath, median A. and medial palmar N. in a fold of the tendon sheath

List all structures passing through the deep carpal canal in the Horse

tendon of flexor carpi radialis, radial A. & V.

List the structures passing through the medial side of the superficial carpal canal in the Horse

palmar branches of the median A. & V., lateral palmar N.

List the structures passing through the lateral side of the superficial carpal canal in the Horse

between the DDF tendon and the palmar aspect of distal PII, distal scutum and distal (impar) navicular lig.

Where is; the podotrochlear (navicular) bursa located in the Horse?

deep brachial, bicipital, collateral ulnar, transverse cubital, common interosseous

List the branches of the brachial A. in the Horse

proximal to carpus:
* median A.: proximal radial A., radial A., palmar branch
* collateral ulnar joins the palmar br. of median A.
- distal to carpus the palmar br. divides into:
* superficial br. which continues as lateral palmar A.
* deep br. which anastomoses with the radial A. in the deep palmar arch

List the branches of the median A. and the collateral ulnar A. around the carpus in the Horse

connection between radial A. and deep br. of palmar br. of median A.

What the deep palmar arch consists of in the Horse?

palmar metacarpal Aa. II-IV

List the arteries originating from the deep palmar arch in Ru

coronary A.

What is the name of the artery branching from the A. of the digital cushion in the Horse

dorsal and palmar branches

Name the arteries of P1 in the Horse and Ru

cephalic and accessory cephalic, median cubital and the connection between cephalic V. and palmar branch V.

List the veins without arterial satellite

ungular plexus consisting of parietal, solear, and external and internal plexuses of the cartilages of the hoof

List the venous plexuses within the Horse hoof

proper axillary, ulnar

List the lymph nodes of the thoracic limb in the Horse:

suprascapular, subscapular, axillary

List the short nerves supplying intrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb

thoracodorsal, long thoracic, caudal pectoral

List the nerves supplying the extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb caudal to the long axis of the limb

the palmar br. of ulnar N. joins the lateral palmar N. (from median) and continue as the lateral palmar N., in the middle of metacarpus a communicating branch joins the lateral to the medial palmar Nn.

Describe the communication between the median and the ulnar Nn.

cranial from axillary N.; lateral from radial N.; caudal from ulnar N.; medial from musculocutaneous N.

List the cutaneous antebrachial Nn. and their origin

cranial cutaneous antebrachial N. - deltoid tuberosity
lateral cutaneous antebrachial N. - midway between deltoid tuberosity and olecranon, ventral border of lateral head of triceps brachii M.
caudal cutaneous antebrachial N. - 10 cm ventral to olecranon tuberosity on a line between it and the accessory carpal bone
medial cutaneous antebrachial N. - lacertus fibrosus

List the landmarks for blocking all cutaneous antebrachial Nn. in the Horse:

abaxial/interosseous side of the proximal sesamoid bone

List the landmark for blocking the digital N. in the Horse

ligament of the ergot, between ergot and fibrocartilage of the hoof

List the landmark for blocking the palmar digital N. in the Horse

structures holding the shoulder joint in a steady position:
* tendon of biceps brachii continuing by the tendon of extensor carpi radialis by lacertus fibrosus
- structures holding the elbow joint in a steady position:
* tendon of biceps brachii continuing by the tendon of extensor carpi radialis
- structures holding the carpal joint in a steady position:
* tendon of extensor carpi radialis - on the dorsal aspect
* proximal and distal accessory ligaments - on the palmar aspect
- structures holding the fetlock joint in a steady position:
* interosseous medius and the distal sesamoid ligaments
- structures holding the pastern joint in a steady position:
* superficial (Y, straight) distal sesamoid ligament tensed by the interosseous medius
* the terminal bifurcated tendon of SDF on middle scutum
- structures holding the coffin joint in a steady position:
* distal digital annular lig.
* distal tendon of DDF

Describe the stay apparatus in the Horse

wall with bars (toe, quarters, heels, bulbs of the heels), covered by periople; consists of stratum externum, stratum medium, and stratum internum/lamellatum
sole with body and crura
frog with crura, cuneal groove, and paracuneal grooves

List the components of the hoof in the Horse

wall: perioplic groove, coronary groove, horny/epidermal lamellae/laminae (including those of the bars);
the white zone on the solear aspect of the hoof represents the horny lamellae of the wall
sole: foramina for the papillae of solear corium
frog: lateral ridges, cuneal spine, lateral grooves

List the components of the internal aspect of the hoof in the Horse

corresponding to the wall: perioplic corium, coronary corium, lamellar/laminar corium, lamellar/laminar
corium of the bars
corresponding to the sole: papillary corium
corresponding to the frog: papillary corium over digital cushion

List the components of the dermis inside of the hoof in the Horse

proximal: coracobrachialis, biceps
distal: brachialis

List the muscles supplied by the musculocutaneous N.:

proximal and distal ligaments, fascia of digital cushion

List the structures of the ergot in the Horse

two axial and two abaxial tendons attached to the tips of the proximal sesamoid bones; one axial and two abaxial extensor tendons attached to the tendon of the lateral digital extensor, and the medial tendon of the common digital extensor, respectively

Describe the branching of the interosseous M. in Ru

two tendons originating in the forearm: the deep one passes within the deep carpal canal, and the superficial tendon passes within the superficial carpal canal. The two tendons reunite in the middle of the metacarpal region and then split in two tendons, one for each digit; proximal to the fetlock they fuse with the corresponding accessory ligament of the interosseus making two long sleeves for the tendons of the DDF (not ring shaped like in the Horse). Each tendon inserts on the middle scutum as a unique structure (not bifurcated as in the Horse)

Describe the superficial digital flexor M. in Ru

the DDF tendon protected by a tendinous bursa, the deep tendon of the SDF protected by a tendinous bursa

List the tendons passing through the deep carpal canal in Ru, and their annex structures

brachial or median A.

What is the origin of the deep antebrachial Aa. in the Horse?

cranial pectoral

What is the name of the nerve supplying the superficial pectoral M. in the Horse?

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