How the long axis of the glenoid cavity is oriented in the Horse?
What species does have an acromion?
In which species the cranial parts of the greater and lesser tubercles of the humerus are bent toward each other?
common digital extensor- extensor carpi radialis- abductor pollicis longus
List the tendons gliding in the grooves on the cranial aspect of the distal end of radius in a lateromedial direction
What is the name of the structure bounding down the tendons on the cranial aspect of the distal end of the radius?
Row 1: accessory, ulnar, intermediate, radial
Row 2: C4, C2+3
List the carpal bones in Ru in a lateromedial direction:
What is the name of the notch which separates the two sets of condyles at the distal end of the McIII+IV in Ru?
What is the name of the surface of PIII in the Horse which comes in contact to the ground?
What is the name of the aspect of the phalanges in Ru looking toward each other?
What is the name of the two foramina located on either side of the flexor surface of PIII in the Horse?
What is the other name given to the distal sesamoid bone in the Horse especially?
trochlearthrosis- flexion and extension
What type of joint the hock and the elbow are? What movements do they allow?
What is the name of the only ligament (other than the joint capsule) of the shoulder joint in the Horse?
The attachments of several muscles replace the fibrous joint capsule (the synovial joint capsule remains)
Why the joint capsule of the elbow is shown only on the cranial aspect, between the two collateral ligaments?
accessorioulnar, accessoriocarpoulnar, accessorioquartal, accessoriometacarpal
List the four ligaments of the accessory carpal bone
palmar joint capsule of the carpal joint
What is the origin of the distal check ligament (of the DDF)?
collateral, distal, palmar, metacarpointersesamoid
List the major sesamoid ligaments in the Horse
interdigital intersesamoid, interdigital phalangosesamoid, proximal and distal interdigital
List the ligaments with the name "interdigital" in the Ru
dorsal and palmar
List the articular pouches of the fetlock joint in the Horse
over the palmar ligament, flexor surfaces of the proximal sesamoid bones
Where the proximal scutum attaches to?
Which tendons glide upon the proximal scutum?
palmar side of PII proximally
Where the middle scutum attaches to?
Which tendon glides upon the middle scutum?
flexor aspect of the navicular bone
Where the distal scutum attaches to?
Which tendon glides upon the distal scutum?
collateral (lateral and medial) and distal (impar)
List the ligaments of the navicular bone in the Horse
Which muscle is the tensor of the superficial antebrachial fascia?
proper (deep) antebrachial fascia
The extensor and flexor retinacula belong to the following fascia:
palmar annular, proximal digital annular, distal digital annular
List the ligaments of the digital fascia
Which muscle of the shoulder is the only extensor of the shoulder joint?
deltoideus, teres major
List the tandem of muscles doing the flexion of the shoulder:
What nerve supplies the flexor muscles of the shoulder?
Which muscle of the shoulder originates by a tendon?
Whose muscle the lacertus fibrosus belongs to?
biceps brachii, brachialis
List the flexor muscles of the elbow:
extensor of the elbow when limb is off the ground, propulsor with the limb of the ground
Which are the two actions of the triceps brachii muscle?
common and lateral digital extensors
List the muscles of the craniolateral aspect of the forearm with distal action
CT between DDF tendon and distal sesamoid ligg, supports vessels nurturing tendons
What is a vinculum?
flexor carpi ulnaris
Which muscle of the caudiomedial aspect of the forearm originates from the ulna and the humerus?
a fibrous attachment of the SDF to the mediocaudal aspect of distal third of radius in the Horse
What is the proximal check/accessory ligament?
CT bridge between the DDF tendon and the middle of palmar aspect of PII- separates the distal digital tendon sheath from the navicular bursa
What is the transverse lamina and what is its importance?
lateral and medial
Name the tendons of the common digital extensor muscle in Ru
Which tendon of the common digital extensor bifurcates to attach to the symmetrical extensor processes of PIII?
6 (1 proximal, 1 distal, 2 symmetrical proximo-lateral and medial, 2 symmetrical disto-lateral and medial)
How many tendinous pouches are there associated with the distal digital tendon sheath?
the palmar articular from the proximal pouch of the distal digital tendon sheath
What pouches/recesses does the interosseous medius separate from each other?
SDF and DDF tendons surrounded by a common tendon sheath, median A. and medial palmar N. in a fold of the tendon sheath
List all structures passing through the deep carpal canal in the Horse
tendon of flexor carpi radialis, radial A. & V.
List the structures passing through the medial side of the superficial carpal canal in the Horse
palmar branches of the median A. & V., lateral palmar N.
List the structures passing through the lateral side of the superficial carpal canal in the Horse
between the DDF tendon and the palmar aspect of distal PII, distal scutum and distal (impar) navicular lig.
Where is; the podotrochlear (navicular) bursa located in the Horse?
deep brachial, bicipital, collateral ulnar, transverse cubital, common interosseous
List the branches of the brachial A. in the Horse
proximal to carpus:
* median A.: proximal radial A., radial A., palmar branch
* collateral ulnar joins the palmar br. of median A.
- distal to carpus the palmar br. divides into:
* superficial br. which continues as lateral palmar A.
* deep br. which anastomoses with the radial A. in the deep palmar arch
List the branches of the median A. and the collateral ulnar A. around the carpus in the Horse
connection between radial A. and deep br. of palmar br. of median A.
What the deep palmar arch consists of in the Horse?
palmar metacarpal Aa. II-IV
List the arteries originating from the deep palmar arch in Ru
What is the name of the artery branching from the A. of the digital cushion in the Horse
dorsal and palmar branches
Name the arteries of P1 in the Horse and Ru
cephalic and accessory cephalic, median cubital and the connection between cephalic V. and palmar branch V.
List the veins without arterial satellite
ungular plexus consisting of parietal, solear, and external and internal plexuses of the cartilages of the hoof
List the venous plexuses within the Horse hoof
proper axillary, ulnar
List the lymph nodes of the thoracic limb in the Horse:
suprascapular, subscapular, axillary
List the short nerves supplying intrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb
thoracodorsal, long thoracic, caudal pectoral
List the nerves supplying the extrinsic muscles of the thoracic limb caudal to the long axis of the limb
the palmar br. of ulnar N. joins the lateral palmar N. (from median) and continue as the lateral palmar N., in the middle of metacarpus a communicating branch joins the lateral to the medial palmar Nn.
Describe the communication between the median and the ulnar Nn.
cranial from axillary N.; lateral from radial N.; caudal from ulnar N.; medial from musculocutaneous N.
List the cutaneous antebrachial Nn. and their origin
cranial cutaneous antebrachial N. - deltoid tuberosity
lateral cutaneous antebrachial N. - midway between deltoid tuberosity and olecranon, ventral border of lateral head of triceps brachii M.
caudal cutaneous antebrachial N. - 10 cm ventral to olecranon tuberosity on a line between it and the accessory carpal bone
medial cutaneous antebrachial N. - lacertus fibrosus
List the landmarks for blocking all cutaneous antebrachial Nn. in the Horse:
abaxial/interosseous side of the proximal sesamoid bone
List the landmark for blocking the digital N. in the Horse
ligament of the ergot, between ergot and fibrocartilage of the hoof
List the landmark for blocking the palmar digital N. in the Horse
structures holding the shoulder joint in a steady position:
* tendon of biceps brachii continuing by the tendon of extensor carpi radialis by lacertus fibrosus
- structures holding the elbow joint in a steady position:
* tendon of biceps brachii continuing by the tendon of extensor carpi radialis
- structures holding the carpal joint in a steady position:
* tendon of extensor carpi radialis - on the dorsal aspect
* proximal and distal accessory ligaments - on the palmar aspect
- structures holding the fetlock joint in a steady position:
* interosseous medius and the distal sesamoid ligaments
- structures holding the pastern joint in a steady position:
* superficial (Y, straight) distal sesamoid ligament tensed by the interosseous medius
* the terminal bifurcated tendon of SDF on middle scutum
- structures holding the coffin joint in a steady position:
* distal digital annular lig.
* distal tendon of DDF
Describe the stay apparatus in the Horse
wall with bars (toe, quarters, heels, bulbs of the heels), covered by periople; consists of stratum externum, stratum medium, and stratum internum/lamellatum
sole with body and crura
frog with crura, cuneal groove, and paracuneal grooves
List the components of the hoof in the Horse
wall: perioplic groove, coronary groove, horny/epidermal lamellae/laminae (including those of the bars);
the white zone on the solear aspect of the hoof represents the horny lamellae of the wall
sole: foramina for the papillae of solear corium
frog: lateral ridges, cuneal spine, lateral grooves
List the components of the internal aspect of the hoof in the Horse
corresponding to the wall: perioplic corium, coronary corium, lamellar/laminar corium, lamellar/laminar
corium of the bars
corresponding to the sole: papillary corium
corresponding to the frog: papillary corium over digital cushion
List the components of the dermis inside of the hoof in the Horse
proximal: coracobrachialis, biceps
List the muscles supplied by the musculocutaneous N.:
proximal and distal ligaments, fascia of digital cushion
List the structures of the ergot in the Horse
two axial and two abaxial tendons attached to the tips of the proximal sesamoid bones; one axial and two abaxial extensor tendons attached to the tendon of the lateral digital extensor, and the medial tendon of the common digital extensor, respectively
Describe the branching of the interosseous M. in Ru
two tendons originating in the forearm: the deep one passes within the deep carpal canal, and the superficial tendon passes within the superficial carpal canal. The two tendons reunite in the middle of the metacarpal region and then split in two tendons, one for each digit; proximal to the fetlock they fuse with the corresponding accessory ligament of the interosseus making two long sleeves for the tendons of the DDF (not ring shaped like in the Horse). Each tendon inserts on the middle scutum as a unique structure (not bifurcated as in the Horse)
Describe the superficial digital flexor M. in Ru
the DDF tendon protected by a tendinous bursa, the deep tendon of the SDF protected by a tendinous bursa
List the tendons passing through the deep carpal canal in Ru, and their annex structures
brachial or median A.
What is the origin of the deep antebrachial Aa. in the Horse?
What is the name of the nerve supplying the superficial pectoral M. in the Horse?