EMT Medical A

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Solid abdominal organs include the:

spleen, kidneys, and pancreas.

You are dispatched to a residence for a 66-year-old male who, according to family members, has suffered a massive stroke. Your primary assessment reveals that the patient is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless. You should:

initiate cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and attach an automated external defibrillator (AED) as soon as possible.

Cheyne-Stokes respirations are an indication:

that the patient is suffering from a brain injury.

An acute myocardial infarction (AMI) occurs when:

myocardial tissue dies secondary to an absence of oxygen.

Which of the following statements regarding the pain associated with AMI is correct?

It can occur during exertion or when the patient is at rest.

Which of the following medications would the EMT Basic LEAST likely administer to a patient with a medical complaint?

naloxone (Narcan)

Which of the following is a major difference between angina pectoris and AMI?

Anginal pain typically subsides with rest.

Temporary, widespread vasodilation and syncope caused by a sudden nervous system reaction MOST accurately describes:

psychogenic shock.

The AED is MOST advantageous in patient care because:

it delivers prompt defibrillation to patients with ventricular fibrillation.

Prompt transport of a patient with a suspected AMI is important because:

the patient may have a STEMI requiring immediate care.

A 58-year-old man complains of chest discomfort and nausea. He is conscious and alert; his blood pressure is 140/90 mm Hg, his pulse is 104 beats/min, and his respirations are 16 breaths/min. Your partner has applied supplemental oxygen. Prior to assisting the patient with one of his prescribed nitroglycerin tablets, you ask him if he takes medication to treat erectile dysfunction and he tells you that he does. You should:

ask him what he takes, how much, and when he last took it and contact medical control.

When the body senses a state of hypoperfusion, the sympathetic nervous system releases epinephrine, the effects of which include:

tachycardia.

A 62-year-old man with a history of congestive heart failure presents with severe respiratory distress and an oxygen saturation of 82%. When you auscultate his lungs, you hear widespread rales. He is conscious and alert, is able to follow simple commands, but can only speak in two- to three-word sentences at a time. You should:

apply a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) device, monitor his blood pressure, and observe him for signs of improvement or deterioration.

When administering supplemental oxygen to a hypoxemic patient with a chronic lung disease, you should:

not withhold oxygen as needed, but be prepared to assist the patient's ventilations.

Nitroglycerin relieves cardiac-related chest pain by:

dilating the coronary arteries and improving cardiac blood flow.

At the onset of an acute asthma attack, patients commonly experience difficulty breathing and:

expiratory wheezing.

The electrical impulse generated by the heart originates in the:

sinoatrial (SA) node.

You are caring for a semiconscious man with left-sided paralysis. His airway is patent and his respirations are 14 breaths/min with adequate tidal volume. Treatment for this patient should include:

oxygen titrated to 95% saturation, left lateral recumbent position, and transport.

Hyperventilation could be associated with all of the following, EXCEPT:

a narcotic overdose.

Albuterol is a generic name for:

Proventil.

Status epilepticus is characterized by:

prolonged seizures without a return of consciousness.

Urticaria is the medical term for:

hives.

Anaphylaxis is MOST accurately defined as a(n):

extreme allergic reaction that may affect multiple body systems.

Shock is the result of:

hypoperfusion to the cells of the body.

A patient who is experiencing aphasia is:

unable to produce or understand speech.

Dyspnea is MOST accurately defined as:

shortness of breath or difficulty breathing.

Which of the following conditions often requires transport to a hospital with specialized capabilities that may not be available at the closest hospital?

stroke and heart attack

You respond to the residence of a 55-year-old female with a possible allergic reaction to peanuts that she ate approximately 30 minutes ago. The patient is conscious and alert, but has diffuse urticaria and the feeling that she has a lump in her throat. As your partner applies oxygen to the patient, you should next:

ask her if she has prescribed epinephrine.

You are assessing a 49-year-old man who, according to his wife, experienced a sudden, severe headache and then passed out. He is unresponsive and has slow, irregular breathing. His blood pressure is 190/94 mm Hg and his pulse rate is 50 beats/min. His wife tells you that he has hypertension and diabetes. He has MOST likely experienced:

a ruptured cerebral artery.

Which of the following is NOT an assessment parameter included in the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale?

memory

Which of the following blood vessels transports oxygenated blood?

pulmonary veins

Glutose is a trade name for:

oral glucose.

Which of the following MOST accurately describes septic shock?

bacterial damage to the vessel wall, leaking blood vessels, and vasodilation

In contrast to the sympathetic nervous system, the parasympathetic nervous system:

slows the heart and respiratory rates.

A 19-year-old male was stung multiple times by fire ants. He is experiencing obvious signs and symptoms of anaphylactic shock. You administer 100% oxygen and give him epinephrine via IM injection. Upon reassessment, you determine that his condition has not improved. You should:

repeat the epinephrine injection after consulting with medical control.

Which of the following MOST accurately describes the cause of an ischemic stroke?

blockage of a cerebral artery

A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when:

signs and symptoms resolve spontaneously within 24 hours.

You and your partner arrive at the scene of a middle-aged man who collapsed about 5 minutes ago. He is unresponsive, apneic, and pulseless. Bystanders are present, but have not provided any care. You should:

perform five cycles of high-quality CPR and then apply the AED.

Which of the following statements regarding the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is correct?

The risk of HIV infection is greatest when deposited on a mucous membrane or directly into the bloodstream.

An area of swelling or enlargement in a weakened arterial wall is called:

an aneurysm.

Narrowing of the coronary arteries due to a buildup of fatty deposits is called:

atherosclerosis.

You arrive at a local grocery store approximately 5 minutes after a 21-year-old female stopped seizing. She is confused and disoriented; she keeps asking you what happened and tells you that she is thirsty. Her brother, who witnessed the seizure, tells you that she takes phenytoin (Dilantin) for her seizures, but has not taken it in a few days. He also tells you that she has diabetes. In addition to applying high-flow oxygen, you should:

monitor her airway and breathing status and assess her blood glucose level.

Activated charcoal is given to patients who have ingested certain substances because it:

binds to the substance and prevents absorption.

Patients with tuberculosis pose the greatest risk for transmitting the disease when they:

cough.

A patient without a history of seizures experiences a sudden convulsion. The LEAST likely cause of this seizure is:

epilepsy.

A patient who presents with rapid breathing, nausea and vomiting, ringing in the ears, and a high fever should be suspected of ingesting a significant quantity of:

aspirin.

Successful recovery from a stroke is most likely if:

thrombolytic therapy is given within 3 hours after symptoms began.

Common side effects of nitroglycerin include all of the following, EXCEPT:

hypertension.

Common signs and symptoms of acute hyperventilation syndrome include:

tachypnea and tingling in the extremities.

The adult epinephrine auto-injector delivers ______ mg of epinephrine, and the pediatric auto-injector delivers ______ mg.

0.3, 0.15

It is especially important to assess pulse, sensation, and movement in all extremities as well as pupillary reactions in patients with a suspected ___________ problem.

neurologic

Pulmonary edema and impaired ventilation occur with:

cardiogenic shock.

Major risk factors for AMI include all of the following, EXCEPT:

hypoglycemia.

Which of the following signs is commonly observed in patients with right-sided heart failure?

dependent edema

Which of the following conditions is NOT a common cause of seizures?

severe hypovolemia

Rales, and dependent edema are clinical indicators of:

congestive heart failure.

Signs of adequate breathing in the adult include all of the following, EXCEPT:

a reduction in tidal volume.

Which of the following statements regarding the heart is correct?

The autonomic nervous system sends an impulse to the SA node.

The normal adult heart rate should not exceed:

100 beats/min.

The primary function of the right atrium is to:

receive blood from the vena cava.

The major artery that supplies all other arteries with blood is the:

aorta.

Which of the following are central pulses?

femoral and carotid

What is the function of platelets?

initial formation of a blood clot

A 59-year-old male with a history of emphysema complains of an acute worsening of his dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain following a forceful cough. Your assessment reveals that he has a barrel-shaped chest, unilaterally diminished breath sounds, and tachycardia. What is the MOST likely cause of this patient's condition?

spontaneous pneumothorax

Which of the following statements regarding pulse oximetry is correct?

Pulse oximetry measures the percentage of hemoglobin that is saturated with oxygen, but does not measure the actual hemoglobin content of the blood.

A 22-year-old female patient is complaining of dyspnea and numbness and tingling in her hands and feet after an argument with her fiancé. Her respirations are 40 breaths/min. You should:

provide reassurance and give oxygen as needed.

Early signs of respiratory distress in the pediatric patient include all of the following, EXCEPT:

cyanosis.

Before assessing the respiratory adequacy of an unconscious infant or child, you must:

ensure that the airway is patent and clear of obstructions.

Drawing in of the muscles between the ribs or of the sternum during inspiration is called:

retracting.

An 8-year-old female with a history of asthma continues to experience severe respiratory distress despite being given multiple doses of her prescribed MDI. She is conscious, but clearly restless. Her heart rate is 130 beats/min and her respiratory rate is 30 breaths/min. She is receiving high-flow oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask. You should:

be prepared to assist her ventilations, contact medical control, and request permission to administer more albuterol using a nebulizer.

A 72 year old female patient is complaining of chest pain. She has a cardiac history and her own nitro. In order to assist in the administration of this medication the patients blood pressure must be at least ________

100 mmHg

With permission of medical direction the EMT may assist in the administration of up to ___ doses of nitroglycerin.

3

As an EMT we will give aspirin for _________.

antiplatelet aggregation

Each aspirin tablet is _____.

81 mg

The dossage and route of glucagon is.

1 mg IM

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