Exam 2 chapter 6 and chapter 7

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terrestrial planets

mercury, venus, earth, mars

jovian planets

jupiter , saturn, neptune,uranus

jovian planets description

-planets formed in a region of the solar system with lower orbital speeds
-large moons formed in surrounding disks of material
-ejected icy planetesmials that are now oort cloud comets
- formed in regions cold enough

Have conditions on Mars may have been suitable for life in the past?

there are dried up riverbed on mars

Which planet have the highest average surface temperature and why?

Venus, because of its dense carbon dioxide atmosphere

Which planet could an astronaut visit without a spacesuit (and survive)?

None; an astronaut would need a spacesuit to survive a visit to any other planet in the solar system.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the outer planets?

They have very few, if any, satellites

What are the main constituents of jovian planets

hydrogen and helium

Where are most of the known asteroids found?

Between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter

terrestial planets description

accredited from the planetesmials of rock and metal
-surfaces dramatically altered during the heavy bombardment

Which factors determine a planet's average surface temperature?

-distance from the sun, reflectivity, and strength of greenhouse effects

Highest Temperature to lowest temperature

Mercury
Earth
Mars
Jupiter
Neptune

What factors determine how long it takes a planet to orbit the sun?

distance from the sun only

Longest time around the sun to shortest time

Neptune
Jupiter
Mars
Earth
Mercury

Rank based on the number of moons that orbit

Jupiter :63
Mars:2
Earth:1
Mercury: 0

Average distance from the Sun from farthest to closest

Pluto, Saturn, Jupiter, Mars, Earth, Mercury

Base on mass from highest to lowest

Sun, Jupiter, Earth, Mars, Mercury, Pluto

Size (average equatorial radius) from lowest to smallest

Sun, Jupiter, Earth, Mars, Mercury, Pluto

What do hydrogen compounds condense into?

ice

Lowest temperature to highest temperature
Which vaporizes next? Which vaporize into gas first?

Hydrogen and helium gas
Hydrogen compounds
Rock
Metals

Materials on the distance from the sun at which they could condense into a solid nebula from farthest to closest:

Hydrogen compounds--->rock---> metals

What is the sun made of:

The composition of the Sun is mostly hydrogen and helium

What are hydrogen compounds?

Hydrogen compounds are molecules that contain hydrogen and one or more other elements such as H2o (water), methane ( CH4) and ammonia (NH3)

At what temperature do hydrogen and helium condense?

It is very difficult to make solid or helium but liquid solid hydrogen or helium can both be produced in laboratories. Scientists cool it to extremely low temperatures

What are the main constituents of the jovian planets?

hydrogen and helium

Where did the elements heavier than hydrogen and helium come from?

They were produced inside stars

Which of the following is not a characteristic of the inner planets?

They all have substantial atmospheres.

Are tall volcano required for volcanicism?

any flow of molten lava across a surface

How can you distinguish impact craters from volcanic craters?

The craters are not associated with any mountains or lava flows

What is tectonics?
The geological process that we call tectonics refers to_____________.

any service disruption, such as stretching or crumbling, caused by stresses within the interior of the world.

Which of the following is necessary for erosion to occur on a planet or a moon?

an atmosphere

What is Valles Marineris?

a long system of canyons stretching nearly a fifth of the way around Mars,looking much like a set of giant cracks in the surface.

What is Olympus Mons?

a giant mountain on Mars, with a crater at its top.

How did Mercury's cliff form?
Mercury's long tall cliffs are thought to have formed when________________________.

the entire planet shrank, causing the surface to crumple.

The major surface features of the lunar highlands are____________.

craters

Volcanism

Mar's Olympus Mons
Big Island of Hawaii
Smooth surfaces of the lunar maria

Impact cratering

old surface features of the lunar highlands

Erosion

Earth's grand canyon

Tectonics

current locations of Earth's continents
Mercury many long,tall cliffs
Mar's Valles Marineris

Out of three characteristics of three planets:
Which one would you expect to have the most wind?

thin atmosphere, low temperature, and fast rotation rate

What is a runaway greenhouse effect?

a greenhouse effect so extreme that if a planet has oceans, it makes has oceans, it makes the oceans boil away completely

Which gas that absorbs ultraviolet light from the Sun?

ozone

Venus description

-sulfuric acid clouds
-runaway greenhouse effect
-almost no surface winds

Earth description

-atmosphere composed primarily of nitrogen
-ultraviolet absorbing stratosphere

Mars

-extremely low density atmosphere
-global dust storms

The core,mantle, and crust of a planet are defined by differences in their___________.

density

Which of the terrestrial worlds has the strongest magnetic world?

Earth

Why does Earth have the strongest magnetic field among the terrestrial worlds?

It is the only one that has both a partially molten metallic core and reasonably rapid rotation

What most likely explains why venus does not have a strong magnetic field?

Its rotation is too slow

The relatively few craters that we see within the lunar maria ____________________.

were formed by impacts that occured after those that formed most of the craters in the lunar highlands

which of the following describes tectonics?

the disruption of a planet's surface by internal stresses

Why do we think Mercury has so many tremendous cliffs?

They were probably formed by tectonics stresses when the entire planet shrank as its core cooled

Which planet have the least substantial atmosphere?

Mercury

What are greenhouses effect?

gases that absorb infrared light

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