Ocean Systems Mid-Term

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The Inner Core of the Earth is composed of:
1) Molten silicates
2) Solid silicates
3) Iron and Nickel
4) Gasses trapped during accretion and yet to be out-gassed
5) Partially melted and recycled crust from subduction zones

iron and nickel

Which of the following is an example of Uniformitarianism?
1) A Coal Mine Fire creating a volcano
2) Sediment being carried downstream by a river
3) A Meteorite Impact
4) Earth's Magnetic Field disappears during the next 50 years
5) None of the Above

sediment being carried downstream by a river

outgassing is responsible for:

the atmosphere and ocean

Marine science (oceanography) is the study of determining the true ages of the oceans...true or false?


Life most likely originated in:
1) Dry environments free of contamination
2) Water
3) Early glaciers
4) The edges of newly formed continents
5) Newly created mountain tops


The Crab Nebula is the remains of a star whose supernova stage was witnessed, and the position marked, by Chinese astronomers in A.D. 1054.
1) True
2) False


According to the condensation theory, stars and planets formed in celestial nebulae, which are clouds of galactic gas, dust, and debris.
1) True
2) False


Who established a center at Sagres, Portugal for the study of marine science and navigation for great wealth and successful trade?
1) Christopher Columbus
2) John Harrison
3) Joseph D. McGregor
4) Prince Henry the Navigator

Prince Henry the Navigator

The magnetic compass, a very important navigational instrument because it points to the magnetic north pole, was invented in Greece in the fourth century BCE.
1) True
2) False


Which one of the following best describes a person who studies and observes wave dynamics, currents, and ocean-atmosphere interactions.
1) Marine geologist
2) Physical oceanographer
3) Marine biologist
4) Chemical oceanographer
5) Marine engineer

physical oceanographer

Based largely on rock evidence obtained during Apollo space missions, it is theorized that the Moon was formed about 4.6 billion years ago by ____________.
1) a passing asteroid that was pulled into gravitational orbit around the Earth
2) a massive internal explosion that ripped Earth into two separate chunks of matter differing significantly in mass
3) a mass of ejecta that coalesced into a sphere after a planetary body about the size of Mars collided with the Earth.
4) the lighter elements gathering together in a relatively distant orbit around Earth as it formed by density stratification
5) the lighter elements gathering together in a relatively distant orbit around Earth as it formed by density stratification.

a mass of ejecta that coalesced into a sphere after a planetary body about the size of mars collided with earth

The most abundant form of detectable matter in the universe is oxygen.
1) True
2) False


The Miller-Urey Experiment was the first to determine:
1) The composition of the early atmosphere
2) That amino acids could be produced from the early atmosphere
3) That water was not a necessary ingredient for the formation of life
4) Both B & C above

that amino acids could be produced from the early atmosphere

Radioactive decay is a major source of heat within the Earth's Mantle.
1) True
2) False


Relative age dating is the process of determining the specific age of rocks (e.g. - this rock is 1.4 million years old).
1) True
2) False


Outgasing is responsible for all oxygen in the present-day atmosphere.
1) True
2) False


The most abundant form of detectable matter in the universe is ___________.
1) Oxygen
2) Nitrogen
3) Hydrogen
4) Helium


What is the name for the Sun and its family of planets?
1) Big bang
2) Solar system
3) Milky way
4) Nebula

solar system

The universe is composed of galaxies, massive rotating aggregates of stars, planets, moons, and other celestial material that maintain their shape due to the force of gravity. The term galaxy comes from the Greek word 'galaktos' meaning __________.
1) Star
2) Sand
3) Milk
4) Grandiose
5) Light


which has a smoother surface?




The boundaries of the North Atlantic Ocean are clearly defined by a United Nations International Treaty agreed to in 1968.
1) True
2) False


Earth's Moon was formed as a medium-sized asteroid was captured into orbit by Earth's gravity.
1) True
2) False


Finding new sea routes for trade and exploration helped to expand people's understanding of the ocean. Fueled by potential material goals rather than "pure" science, Prince Henry the Navigator of Portugal was able to establish a marine school of navigation. Henry's students were among the first since the ancient Greeks to be correct in assessing Earth's round shape, as well as estimating its circumference.
1) True
2) False


Which one of the following is a satellite which carries a color scanner called SeaWiFS. It measures the distribution of chlorophyll at the ocean surface, which gives a measure of marine productivity?
2) GPS


Most of today's world ocean was in place about 4.6 billions years ago, making it as old as the Earth itself.
1) True
2) False


The average salinity of the World Ocean is_______? (Clue: There's more than one right way to wash dishes as long as they come out clean, or, as Shakespeare explains, "What's in a name? That which we call a rose by any other word would smell as sweet." Romeo and Juliet (II, ii, 1-2)
1) 3.4 parts per hundred
2) 34 parts per thousand
3) 34,000 parts per million
4) All of the above

all of the above

3.4 parts per hundred

34 parts per thousand

34,000 parts per million

The scientific method is used for finding irrefutable absolute truth in nature.
1) True
2) False


The Library of Alexandria, which was established in the third century BCE (before common era), was the locus for the study of marine science in the western hemisphere.
1) True
2) False


The process by which Earth's composition became layered in concentric spheres of progressively heavier material is known as _____________.
1) massive outgassing
2) cumulative accretion
3) density stratification
4) fluid condensation
5) distillation

density stratification

When the material of a spinning nebula collapses due to gravitational attraction, heat due to friction raises the temperature. When the temperature of this shrinking mass of increasingly dense gaseous material reaches about ____________ degrees Celsius, the process of nuclear fusion begins.
1) 10,000
2) 10,000,000
3) 18,000
4) 18,000,000
5) 186,000


submarine canyons are a direct result of offshore seismic activity and tectonic movement... true or false?


The farther from the spreading center, the ___________ oceanic floor in that spot.
a) younger
b) older
c) less dense
d) more dense
e) b & d

older and more dense

How many meters is Alvin, a deep-diving research submarine, capable of diving?
a) 5,000 meters
b) 4,000 - 4,500 meters
c) 12,000 meters
d) none of the above

4,000-4,500 meters

Which one of Earth's interior layers is thought to be liquid?
a) Lithosphere
b) Mantle
c) Inner core
d) Outer core


Identify the following statement as true or false: Darwin and Wallace's theory of natural selection provided indirect support for the geological idea of catastrophism.
a) True
b) False


Which on of the following is true about the Earth's mantle?
a) The layer beneath the crust composes 68% of Earth's mass and 83 % of its volume.
b) It accounts for only 0.4% of Earth's total mass and less than 1% of its volume.
c) It consists mainly of iron (90%) and nickel, along with silicon, sulfur, and heavy elements.
d) a & c
e) b & c


Which one of the following causes most of the damage during an earthquake?
a) Surface waves
b) Body waves
c) P waves
d) S waves
e) All of above

surface waves

The Himalayan Mountains are the highest mountains on the world's continents. They are a result of a ____________________ tectonic boundary.
a) Ocean/Continent
b) Ocean/Ocean
c) Continent/Continent
d) Transform/Conform
e) Divergent/Transform


What type of plate boundary exists along the west coast of South America?
a) Ocean/Continent
b) Ocean/Ocean
c) Continent/Continent
d) Transform/Conform
e) Divergent/Transform


Which one of following is the plate boundary where oceanic crust is destroyed?
a) convergent
b) divergent
c) transform
d) all of above


How much of the Earth's total mass is the crust?
a) 0.4%
b) 29%
c) 14%
d) 0.1%


What is true about passive and active margins?
a) Passive margins exist extensively along the Pacific Rim and active margins are along the Atlantic Rim.
b) Active margins have much volcanic and seismic activity while passive margins have very little of this activity.
c) Passive margins are at the distal edges of diverging plates and active margins are at the edges of converging plates
d) a & b
e) b & c

e) b & c

Which one of the following best describes the process in which the crust plunges (ducks, sounds like ducts) down into the mantle.
a) Seafloor spreading
b) Subduction
c) Magma
d) Radioactive decay


The California coast will eventually:
a) Fall into the Pacific
b) Slide northwest to a position near Alaska
c) Be suducted westward under the Pacific Ocean
d) Become a string of volcanoes

slide northwest to a position near Alaska

it would take a rise in sea level of __________ feet to drown all the major cities along the east cost of the United States.

20 feet

Heat that drives plate tectonics comes from:
a) Meteorite impacts on the surface of the planet
b) Decay of radiometric materials in the interior of the Earth
c) Frictional heat generated by earthquakes
d) None of the above

decay of radiometric materials in the interior of the earth

Profiling and mapping the ocean bottom depends on an array of depth measurements. The most frequent technique for measuring ocean depth employs what medium?
a) Light in the form of laser beams
b) lead weight at the end of a long line
c) sonic waves transmitted by a transducer
d) pressure sensors dragged along the bottom

sonic waves transmitted by a transducter

the highest earthquale magnitued ever recorded in the united states was 9.2. In which city and state was that earthquke?

anchorage, alaska

In order to measure the depth of the ocean, we can use machines that transmit beams of sound through the water. These beams bounce off the seafloor (along with other dense things like schools of fish), and, by measuring the time required for the sound waves to bounce back to the ship, allow us to read the depth and contour of the seafloor... true or false?


Like enormous icebergs, mountains "float" on the underlying material (water for icebergs, the lithosphere for mountains). Which of the following is also true of both icebergs and mountains:
a) In both, tall, massive peaks correspond to broad, shallow roots.
b) In both, the underlying lithospheric material is free to flow and deform under the weight.
c) In both, the underlying material supports the mass through mechanical strength.
d) In both, a point of equilibrium has been reached between the displaced mass and the submerged mass.
e) In both, phase changes take place at approximately 373 kelvin.

in both, a point of equilibrium has been reached between the displaced mass and the submerged mass

Which of the following tectonic interactions is most likely to cause the formation of a rift valley?
a) Ocean-ocean divergent boundary
b) Continent-continent divergent boundary
c) Ocean-continent convergent boundary
d) Ocean-ocean convergent boundary
e) Continent-continent convergent boundary

continent-continent divergent boundary

According to Oceanography, Which of the following was the greatest obstacle to acceptance of Wegener's theory?
a) The discovery of fossil plants in Antarctica
b) The view of the Earth's mantle as a solid scaffold
c) The theory of Pangaea and Panthalassa
d) The presence of continental tracks in the seabed
e) Tidal drag on continents from the sun and the moon

the view of earth's mantle as a solid scaffold

Of the following ocean basin features, the one with the greatest average angle of inclination (the steepest) is ____________.
a) continental shelf
b) continental slope
c) continental rise
d) abyssal plain

continental slope

The shelf at a passive margin is usually very narrow and the shelf at an active margin is often broad.
a) True
b) False


Abyssal plains are flat featureless expanses of sediment-covered ocean floor found in nearly all the world's oceans.
a) True
b) False


The ocean floor is divided into two main provinces, the shallower continental margin and the deeper ocean basin. What type of rock is indicative of the ocean floor environment?
a) Rhyolite
b) Granite
c) Limestone
d) Basalt


Continental margins near the edges of converging plates are called _______
__________ .
a) Transform basins
b) Passive margins
c) Active margins
d) Island arcs
e) Shield volcanoes

active margins

Which of the following tectonic interactions is most likely to cause the formation of an island arc?
a) Divergent plate boundary
b) Transform plate boundary
c) Convergent plate boundary

convergent plate boundary

The thickness of sediment covering the oceanic basement rocks should become ______________ farther away from any mid-ocean ridge.
a) Become thicker
b) Become thinner
c) Stay the same
d) Display a random pattern


Which of the following are main features of continental margins?
a) shelf
b) slope
c) rise
d) all of above

all of the above

About ______ of the world's table salt is currently produced from seawater by evaporation. In 2005 the United States produced by evaporation about 3.9 million metric tons (4.4 million tons) of table salt with a value of about US$160 million.
a) 1/3
b) 1/5
c) 1/7
d) 1/9


Sediments of the continental slope, continental rise, and the deep ocean floor that originate in the ocean are called ____________.
a) netritic sediments
b) pelagic sediments
c) well-sorted sediments
d) poorly sorted sediments

pelagic sediments

The most valuable living marine resources are ______________________.
a) fish and crustaceans
b) crustaceans and mollusks
c) fish and mollusks
d) fish, crustaceans, and mollusks

fish, crustaceans, and mollusks

One chapter of Grotius's work De Jure Praedae, which defended free ocean access for all nations, was reprinted in 1609 under the title Mare Liberum. Mare Liberum formed the basis for all modern international _______________.
a) laws of the ocean
b) laws of fish
c) laws of marine life
d) laws of the sea

laws of the sea

Evaporites are ______________ deposits that include salts that precipitate from water that evaporates from isolated arms of the ocean or form landlocked seas or lakes.
a) Terrigenous
b) Biogenous
c) Hydrogenous
d) Cosmogenous


A dilute mixture of sediment and water that periodically rushes down the continental slope is a ______________.
a) nodule
b) evaporite
c) turbidity current
d) diatom

turbitity current

The fastest-growing viable alternative to oil as an energy source is water power.
a) True
b) False


Fine particles of sediment can be classified as: sand, silt or clay. These particles are defined by _________.
a) their origin
b) their size
c) their color
d) none of above

their size

Rounding of sediment sand grains becomes more common with an increase in maturity.
a) True
b) False


What is the name for the zone where nations hold sovereignty over resources, economic activity, and environmental protection?
a) Exclusive Economic Zone
b) Executive Economic Zone
c) Extinction Economic Zone
d) Executive Ethnic Zone

exclusive economic zone

Which of the following has the least average sediment thickness?
a) Continental shelves
b) Continental slopes
c) Continental rise
d) Deep-ocean floor

deep-ocean floor

Which of the following is the second most valuable physical marine resource?
a) Sand & Gravel
b) Oil
c) Gas
d) Methyl hydrate
e) a & d

sand and gravel

The United States holds nominal control over Law of the Sea policies.
a) True
b) False


Usually, the bigger the particle is, the more easily it can be transported by streams, waves, and currents.
a) True
b) False


JOIDES is an acronym that stands for ___________.
a) Jurisdiction of International Deep Environmental Seascapes
b) Japan Ocean Investigation and Environmental Survey
c) Joint Oceanographic Institutions for Deep Earth Sampling
d) Jamboree for Oceanic Investigations and Deep Environmental Studies

joint oceanographic institutions for deep earth sampling

____________is the name given to the practice of growing and farming of marine organisms, usually in estuaries, bays, or nearshore environments, or in specially designed structures using circulating seawater?
a) Aquaculture
b) Mariculture
c) Seawaterculture
d) Fishculture


Marine resources can be classified as either renewable or nonrenewable. Oil, gas, and solid minerals are renewable resources.
a) True
b) False


The most significant potential source of new energy from the ocean is:
a) Current driven turbines
b) The "Limpet 500"
c) Gas hydrates
d) None of the above

gas hydrates

Ships transport to market nearly _______ of the world's crude oil production.
a) 1/3
b) 1/2
c) 2/3
d) 3/4
e) 90%


Neritic deposits almost always contain biogenous sediments.
a) True
b) False


________________ is a type of marine resource classified by use of place or location. Transportation of people and commodities by sea, recreation, and waste disposal for example.
a) physical resources
b) marine energy resources
c) nonrenewable resources
d) nonextractive resources

nonextractive resources

Of the four classes of marine resources, which if any contain potentially nonrenewable resources.
a) Physical
b) Marine Energy
c) Biological
d) Nonextractive
e) a & c

physical, biological

What is the problem with extracting the largest reservoir of hydrocarbon fuel on earth?
a) Oil can leak into the ocean from drilling platforms
b) Natural gas wells are too deep in the ocean to drill
c) Coal mines can flood with seawater
d) Methane Hydrate is too volatile and dangerous

methane hydrate is is too volatile and dangerous

As opposed to pelagic sediments neritic sediments are found _____________.
a) near the coast
b) on the abyssal plain
c) in the water column
d) at divergent plate boundaries

near the coast

Which of the following is NOT a current economic benefit from ocean sediments?
a) Mining of diatomaceous earth
b) Drilling for petroleum deposits
c) Commercial collection of manganese nodules
d) Mining of sand and gravel

commercial collection of manganese nodules

The famous white cliffs at Dover, England are uplifted masses of fossilized radiolarians and diatoms.
a) True
b) False


What is the name for water suitable for drinking?
a) Potable water
b) Saline water
c) Transportable water
d) Movable water

potable water

Overfishing occurs when so many fish have been harvested that there no longer exists enough breeding stock left to replenish the species. Most marine species are overfished.
a) True
b) False


The sediment type which covers the least volume on the ocean floor is cosmogenous.
a) True
b) False


The ocean and some continental land masses are over 4 billion years old. How old are the oldest marine sediments?
a) More than 4 billion years old
b) About 1 billion years old
c) About 180 million years old
d) Less than 1 million years old

180 million years old

True or false. Blue whales are now extinct.


why has the fish per capita level decreased?

higher fish population

True or false. the terms aquaculture and mariculture mean the same thing.


nearly all the sands, gravels, and muds found on the continental shelf are from a ____________________ source


true or false. the boundaries of the North Atlantic Ocean are clearly defined by international treaty.


"sea floor spreading" and "continental drift" are:

both b & c

theories are different, yet similar. they draw conclusions from the same observations

how long would it take to scan the entire ocean floor?

3 days

Extratropical cyclones rotate _________________ in Northern Hemisphere, due to the Coriolis deflection of winds approaching the center of a low-pressure area from great distances.





Surface currents: (choose all that apply)
a) form global patterns within longitudinal bands
b) are in zones of rapid density change with depth
c) are comprised of water flowing vertically
d) are driven by wind friction

a & d

About 10% of the water in the world ocean makes up all of the surface currents. Most surface currents move water above the _______________, the zone of maximum density change per unit depth.
a) pycnocline
b) halocline
c) thermocline
d) freezing point


Conduction is much a more efficient means of moving heat than convection.
a) true
b) false


The "Ekman Spiral" describes how water below the surface flows toward the left of the wind direction in the southern hemisphere.
a) true
b) false


Looking from the North Pole, the Earth turns counterclockwise. If a projectile or an air mass heads northward from the equator, in which cardinal direction will it veer from its poleward path?
a) west
b) east
c) south
d) it will not veer


"El Nino" events are considered to be periods of normal oceanic and atmospheric conditions.
a) true
b) false


Due to the combined effect of wind friction, Coriolis Effect, Ekman Transport, land mass, and the pressure gradient, ocean currents tend to __________________.
a)flow in staight lines
b)flow along the periphery (outside) of ocean basins
c)spiral in toward the ocean center
e)sink downward toward the ocean bottom


How many discrete differently named atmospheric circulation cells exist in each of Earth's hemispheres north or south of the equator?
a) 1
b) 2
c) 3
d) 4


Water vapor, as opposed to precipitation or condensation, is ______ .
a) a gaseous state of water

b) visible as a gas in clouds and fog

c) capable of occupying 4% of atmospheric volume

d) all of the above

e) a and c only


The ozone layer is important to life on earth because:
a) It acts as a sink for dangerous chloroflurorocarbons.
b) It absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiation from the sun.
c) It helps keep the sun's heat close to the earth's surface.
d) It is the primary atmospheric reservoir of oxygen.


Of the world ocean's 6 great current circuits, how many are not peripheral gyres that tend to make large rotational geostrophic gyres, or boundary currents?
a) none
b) one
c) two
d) four
e) all of them


The Northern Hemisphere contains much less ocean surface than the Southern Hemisphere. Landmasses have lower specific heat than the ocean. Therefore, atmospheric circulation between the two hemispheres is centered about the meteorological equator, not the geographic equator.
a) true
b) false


Planets must have an atmosphere for atmospheric circulation to occur; therefore, cyclones can only happen on Earth.
a) true
b) false


Western boundary currents tend to be _____________.
a) warm
b) fast
c) deep
d) all of the above
e) a & c


The north-south shifting of the ITCZ and the onset of the monsoons result from seasonal variations caused by the tilt of the Earth's axis.
a) true
b) false


Which of the following are parts of the six-cell global atmospheric circulation model?
a) Polar cells, Ferrel cells and Hadley cells
b) Atlantic cells, Pacific cells, and Arctic cells
c) Solar cells, Tropical cells and Temperate cells
d) Low latitude cells, Mid-Latitude cells and High latitude cells


transverse currents _________.
a) tend to cross lines of latitude
b) tend to cross lines of longitude
c) are shear currents between adjacent boundary currents
d) are not wind generated
e) b, c, and d


choose the answer that most accurately describes the composition of the earth's atmosphere:
a) Mostly water vapor with 20% oxygen and 10% carbon dioxide
b) Mostly nitrogen, with about 20% oxygen and a little water vapor
c) Mostly oxygen and water vapor, with about 20% nitrogen
d) Mostly carbon dioxide and water vapor, with about 20% oxygen


With regard to the naming of tropical cyclones, _____________ is to the Caribbean as _____________ is to the Western Pacific.
a) chubasco, monsoon
b) papagayo, kamsin
c) hurricane, typhoon
d) el viento, kaminari


Which one of the following western boundary currents carries the most volume?
a) The Gulf Stream
b) The Kuroshio Currents
c) The Brazil Currents
d) The Agulhas Currents


The lower atmosphere is a mixture of gases, mostly nitrogen (78.1%) and oxygen (20.9%).
a) true
b) false


One sverdrup equals _____ cubic meters/second
a) 10 to the 3rd power
b) 10 to the 6th power
c) 10 to the 9th power
d) 10 to the minus 3rd power


The North Pacific trade winds set ocean surface water (<400 meters deep) in motion. Towards which general direction does this current flow
a) north
b) south
c) east
d) west


Water of the oceans and water vapor in the atmosphere transfer great quantities of heat from the tropics to the poles. Atmospheric circulation accounts for _____ of the transfer, while ocean circulation accounts for _______.
a) (1/3, 2/3)
b) (2/3, 1/3)
c) (1/4, 3/4)
d) (3/4, 1/4)


Which one of the following is a not an eastern boundary current?
a) The East Australian Current
b) The Canary Current
c) The Benguela Current
d) The California Current


Oceanographers name currents and large bodies of water according to their relative vertical position in the water column. Which one of the following is the water mass that resides below 1,500 meters (5000 feet) to a depth of about 4,000 meters (13,000 feet)?
a) Intermediate water
b) Central water
c) Deep water
d) Bottom water


Eastern boundary currents are ________________________.
a) cold
b) slow
c) shallow
d) all of above
e) b & c


Which of the following is true of western boundary currents? (Select all that apply)
a) Cold, shallow and broad
b) Narrow, deep, and fast
c) Water is derived from mid-latitudes
d) Rich in nutrients
e) all of the above


Identify the following statement as true or false: life on earth would be safer without the greenhouse effect.
a) true
b) false


A ______________ is huge rotating masses of low-pressure air in which winds converge and ascend. A ________________ is a much smaller funnel of fast-spinning with severe thunderstorms.
a) tropical storm, extratropical storm
b) cyclone, tornado
c) tornado, cyclone
d) extratropical storm, tropical storm


When a cannon ball is fired northward from the Equator, it will veer towards the east (clockwise).
a) true
b) false


Thermohaline circulation instead of wind friction drives the mid- to deep ocean currents. This type of circulation is powered by _________________.
a)Uneven solar input.

b)heat from the Earth's mantle altering the level of the pycnocline.

c)changes in water density that causes it to rise or fall through the water column.

d)all of the above.

e)answers a and c only.


Pressure being equal, cold air can hold more water vapor than warm air can.
a) true
b) false


Although nutrients in surface water are sometimes depleted by the rapid growth of organism, deep water is often rich in nutrients. When that water rises toward the sunlit surface (upwelling), biological productivity increases.
a) true
b) false


Cold water flows to higher latitudes where heat is transferred to it, then it flows back to low latitudes and releases its heat before the cycle repeats.
a) true
b) false


The thermocline is best developed in low latitude regions.
a) true
b) false


The surface temperature of Earth fluctuates slowly overtime. The global temperature trend has been generally upward during the 18,000 years since the last glacial advance, but the rate of increase has recently accelerated. This rapid warming is probably the result of an enhanced _________________, the trapping of heat by the atmosphere. This effect is necessary for life, without it Earth's average atmospheric temperature would be about -18°C (0°F). However, humans have injected exhorbitant amounts of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere since the beginning of the Industrial Revolution.
a) greenhouse effect
b) ozone depletion
c) red-tide effect
d) a &b
e) all of the above


Sea and land breezes are a significant part of California's coastal weather. A sea breeze can occur when the air over land masses near the coast ________________.
a) rises in temperature
b) falls in temperature
c) rises in pressure
d) falls in pressure
e) a and d
f) b and c


Land breezes originate over the sea and move onto the land. Whereas, sea breezes originate on land and move out to the sea.
a) True
b) False


Coriolis deflection of moving air masses is due to which of the following?
a) The temperature of the air
b) The gravitational attraction of the moon
c) The shape of mountains and valleys
d) The spherical shape of the rotating earth


At sea near 30 degrees latitudethereare areas of high atmospheric pressure and little surface wind. Thery are called the___________. On land these latitudes are the locations of the world's great deserts.
a) trade latitudes
b) trade longitudes
c) horse latitudes
d) horse longitudes


According to the temperature-salinity (T-S) profile graph, a mass of water of a certain density and having a unique temperature and salinity can _______________.
a) have multiple density values.
b) be mixed with a water mass having the same temperature and salinity in order to make a single water mass having a completely different density.
c) be mixed with a water mass having the same density (but a different temperature and salinity) to make a single water mass having a totally different density.
d) all of the above.


The evaporation of water from the ocean's surface helps to moderate global temperatures due to the water molecule's low heat capacity.
a) True
b) False


"Coriolis Effect" will normally cause counterclockwise circulation in the northern hemisphere.
a) True
b) False


A pair of air circulation cell which exists between(adjacent is hadley cells) 30°N and 60°N latitude, and 30°S and 60°S is known as
a) Ferrel cells
b) Hadley cells
c) Polar cells
d) Tropical cells


As Earth revolves around the Sun the constant tilt of its rotational axis causes the Southern Hemisphere to lean toward the sun in June but away from it in December. The Sun, therefore, appears higher in the sky in June but lower in December.
a) True
b) False


Seasonal variation of climate on Earth is due to ___________.
a) tilt of Earth's axis of rotation
b) spin of the earth on its rotational axis
c) elliptical orbit of the Earth around the Sun
d) all of the above


Release primarily of ______________ into the atmosphere causes depletion of the ozone layer which, in turn, allows for more UV to pass through to the surface of the earth. ____________ is the place that so far has recorded the greatest decrease (about 50%) in this protective layer.
a) ozone, Bora Bora
b) sulfur dioxide, Antarctica
c) chlorofluorocarbons, Antarctica
d) sulfur dioxode, Bora Bora


It will be exceedingly difficult to limit global warming by decreasing the production of carbon dioxide. We depend on fossil fuel to power the world economy. The world energy demand is projected to increase ________ times between now and 2025, with carbon dioxide emissions _______% higher than today.
a) 2, 30
b) 2.5, 40
c) 3, 50
d) 3.5, 65


Which of the following is NOT a possible consequence of global warming, according to Oceanography?
a) Ocean currents and patterns of rainfall are likely to change.
b) Islands and low-lying areas will be permanently flooded.
c) The quantity of gases dissolved in seawater, including oxygen, will increase.
d) The Northwest Passage will be open to shipping during the summer.


What percentage of the ocean's water is affected by surface currents?
a 10%
b 35%
c 70%
d 90%


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