apush ch. 34-35

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London economic conference

International economic conference on stabilizing currency that was sabotaged by FDR

Phillipines

Nation to which the U.S promised independence in the Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934

Good neighbor policy

FDR's repudiation og theodore Roosevelt's Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, stating his intention to work cooperatlively with Latin American nations

Neutrality Acts

A series of laws enacted by confress in the mid-1930's that attempted to prevent any American involvement in future oversea wars

Spanish Civil War

Conflict between the rebel Fascist forces of General Francisco Franco and the Loyalist government that severly tested U.S. neutrality legistlation

Quarantine Speech

Roosevelt's 1937 speech that proposed strong U.S. measures agaainst overseas aggressors

Munich Conferene

European diplomatic conference in 1938 where Britain and France conceded to Hitler's demands for Czechoslovakia

Appeasement

term for British-French policy of attempting to prevent war by granting German demands

Committee to Defend America

leading U.S. group advocating American support for Britain in the fight against Hitler

America First

Leading isolationist group advocating that America focus on continental defense and non-involvment with the European war

Lend-Lease

Controvesial 1941 law that made America the "arsenal of democracy" by providing supposedly temporary military material assistance to Britain

Soviet Union

Communist nation invaded by Hitler in June 1941 that was also aided by America lend-lease

Atlantic Charter

U.S.-British agreement of August 1941 to promote democracy and establish a new international organization for peace

Reuben James

U.S. destroyer sunk by German submarines off the coast of Iceland in October 1941, with the loss of over a hundred men

Pearl Harbor

Major American Pacific naval base devastated in a suprise attack in December 1941

Cordell Hull

FDR's secretary of state, who promoted reciprocal trade agreements, especially with Latin America

Adolf Hitler

Fanatical Fascist leader of Germany whose aggressions forced the U.S. to abandon its neutrality

Benito Mussolini

The lesser partner of the Rome-Berlin Axis who invaded Ethipoia and joined the war against France and Britain

Gerald Nye

Instigator of 1934 Senate hearings that castigated WWI munitions manufacacturers as "merchants of death"

Francisco Franco

fascist rebel against the Spanish Loyalist government

Ethiopia

African nation ivaded by an Italian dictator in 1935

France

Nation whose sudden fall to Hitler in 1940 pushed the U.S closer to direct aid to Britain

Charles A. Lindbergh

Leader of "america first" organization and chief spokesman for U.S. isolationism

Wendell Willkie

Dynamic dark horse republican nominee who attacked FDR only on domestic policy

Winston Churchill

Corageous prime minister who led Britain's lonely resistance to Hitler

Joseph Stalin

Russian dictator who first helped Hitler destroy Poland before becoming a nictim of Nazi aggression in 1941

Hawaii

site of a naval base where Japan launched a devastating suprise attack on the U.S.

Iceland

North Atlantic nation near whose waters U.S. destroyers came under Nazi submarine attack

Czechoslovakia

Small East European democracy betrayed into Hitler's hands at Munich

Poland

East European nation whose september 1939 invasion by Hitler set off WWII in Europe

Jews

A U.S. minority that were forced into concentration camps during WWII

WPB

a federal agency that coordinated U.S. industry and successfully mobilized the economy to producce vast quantities of military supplies

WAAC and WAVES

women's units of the army and navy during WWII

Bracero's

Mecican American workers brought into the U.S. to provide an agricultural labor supply

Rosie the Riveter

Symbolic personification of femal laborers who took factory jobs in order to sustain U.S. production during WWII

FEPC

The federal agency What was the federal agency established to guarantee opportunities for African American employment in World War II industries

Phillipines

U.s. owned pacific archipelago seized by japan in the early months of WWII

Battle of Midway

Crucial naval battle of june 1942 in which us admiral chester nimitz blocked the japanese attempt to conquer a strategic island near hawaii

"unconditional Surrender"

Controversial U.S.-British demand on Germany and Japan that substituted for a "second front"

Casablanca

Site of 1943 conference in North Africa, at which the Big Two planned the invasion of Italy and further steps in the Pacific War

Tehran

Iranian capital where Roosevelt, Churchill, and Stalin met to plan D-Day in coordination with Russian stategy against Hitler in the East

Normandy

The beginning of Allied invasion of France in June 1944

The Battle of Bulge

The December 1944 German offensive that marked hitler's last chance to stop the allied advance

Manchuria and Korea

The last two heavily defended Japanese islands conquered by the U.S in 1945

Atomic Bomb

The devastating new weapon used by the U.S agaisnt Japan in August 1945

Henry Kaiser

Leading American inustrialist and shipbuilder during WWII

John Lewis

Allied leader who met with FDR to plan strategy at Casablanca and Teheran

A. Phillip Randolph

Head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters whose threatened march on Washington opened job opportunities for blacks during WWII

Detroit

Site of a serious racial disturbance during WWII

Chiang Kai-Shek

U.S. ally who resisted Hapanese advances in China during WWII

Douglas McArthur

Commander of the U.S. Army in the Pacific during WWII, who fulfilled his promise to return to the Philipines

Chester W. Nimitz

Commander of the U.S. naval forces in the Pacific and brillian strategist of the "island hopping campaign"

Dwight D. Eisenhower

Commander of the allied mititary assault against Hitler in North Africa and France

Winston Churchill

Tough head of the United Mine Workers, whose work stoppages precipitated anit-strike laws

Joseph Stalin

The Allied leader who constantly pressured the U,S and Britain to open a "second front" against Hitler

Thomas Dewey

Republican presidential nominee in 1944 who failed in his effort to deny FDR a fourth term

Henry Wallace

FDR's liberal vice president during most of WWII, dumped from the ticket in 1944

Harry S. Truman

Inconspicuous former senator from Missour who was suddenly catapulted to national and world leadership on April 12, 1945

Albert Einstein

German-born fhysicist who helped persuade Roosevelt to develop the atomic bomb

Hirohito

Japanes emperor who was allowed to stay on hist throne, despite unconditional surrender policy

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