Chapter 16 The Atmosphere: Composition, Structure & Temperature

36 terms by smwcc

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

aerosols

tiny solid particles or liquid droplets that remain suspended in the atmosphere for a long time

air

mixture of oxygen, nitrogen, CO2 and other substances in which solid and liquid particles are suspended

albedo

the reflectivity of a surface, usually expressed as a % of the incident radiation reflected

autumnal equinox

The equinox that occurs on September 22 or 23 in the Northern Hemisphere and on March 21 or 22 in the Southern Hemisphere

circle of illumination

the great circle that separates daylight from darkness

climate

overall weather in an area over a long period of time

conduction

transfer of energy that occurs when molecules bump into each other

convection

the transfer of thermal energy by the circulation or movement of a liquid or gas

diffused light

solar energy scattered and reflected in the atmosphere that reaches Earth's surface in the form of diffused blue light from the sky

electromagnetic radiation

energy that travels through space in the form of waves

element (of weather and climate)

those quantities or properties of the atmosphere that are measured regularly and that are used to express the nature of weather and climate

environmental lapse rate

the rate of temperature decrease with increasing height in the troposphere

greenhouse effect

the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate infrared radiation

heat

the total amount of kinetic energy due to the random motion of atoms or molecules in a body of matter; also called thermal energy.

inclination of the axis

the tilt of Earth's axis from the perpendicular to the plane on Earth's orbit

infrared

radiation with a wavelength from .7 to 200 micrometers

isotherm

line drawn on a weather map that connects points having equal temperature

mesosphere

the layer of the atmosphere between the stratosphere and the thermosphere and in which temperature decreases as altitude increases

ozone

a form of oxygen that has three oxygen atoms in each molecule instead of the usual two

radiation

the transfer of (heat) energy by electromagnetic waves

reflection

the bouncing back of an object or wave when it hits a surface through which it cannot pass

revolution

the movement of one object around another (such as the Earth around the sun)

rotation

circular movement around an axis

scattering

the redirecting (in all directions) of light by small particles and gas molecules in the atmosphere; the result is more light rays with weaker intensity (diffused light)

spring equinox

the equinox that occurs on March 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and September 21 or 22 in the Southern Hemisphere

stratosphere

the layer of the atmosphere that is above the troposphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases (due to ozone concentration)

summer solstice

solstice that occurs on June 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and on December 21 or 22 in the Southern Hemisphere

temperature

a measure of how hot (or cold) something is; specifically, a measure of the average kinetic energy of the particles in an object

thermosphere

the uppermost layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases (due to absorption of shortwave solar energy by oxygen)

Tropic of Cancer

a line of latitude located at 23°30' north of the equator; sun is directly overhead of the Tropic of Cancer on the summer solstice in the Northern Hemisphere (June 20 or 21)

Tropic of Capricorn

a line of latitude located at 23°30' south; sun is directly overhead of the Tropic of Capricorn on the summer solstice in the Southern Hemisphere (Dec. 20 or 21)

troposphere

the lowest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature decreases at a constant rate as altitude increases; where most weather occurs

ultraviolet

radiation with a wavelength from .2 to .4 micrometer

visible light

portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 750 nm (0.4 - 0.7 micrometers)

weather

meteorological conditions: temperature, wind, clouds and precipitation

winter solstice

solstice that occurs on December 21 or 22 in the Northern Hemisphere and on June 21 or 22 in the Southern Hemisphere

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set