A relatively permanent influence on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills, which comes about through experience.
The view that behavior should be explained by observable experiences, not by mental processes.
Thoughts, feelings, and motives that cannot be observed by others.
Learning that two events are connected (associated).
A form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response (think Pavlov).
A method based on classical conditioning that reduces anxiety by getting the individual to associate deep relaxation with successive visualizations of increasingly anxiety-provoking situations.
Also called instrumental conditioning, this is a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur. (think BF Skinner)
A consequence that increases the probability that a behavior will occur.
A consequence that decreases the probability that a behavior will occur.
Reinforcement based on the principle that the frequency of a response increases because it is followed by a rewarding stimulus.
Reinforcement based on the principle that the frequency of a response increases because of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus is removed.
applied behavior analysis
Application of the principles of operant conditioning to change human behavior.
The principle that a high-probability activity can serve as a reinforcer for a low-probability.
schedules of reinforcement
Partial reinforcement timetables that determine when a response will be reinforced.
Putting reinforcement contingencies into writing.
An added stimulus or cue that is given just before a response will occur.
Teaching new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations to a specified target behavior.
Removing an individual from positive reinforcement.
Taking a positive reinforcer away from an individual.
social cognitive theory
Bandura's theory that social and cognitive factors, as well as behavior, play important roles in learning.
The belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.
Learning that involves acquiring skills, strategies, and beliefs by observing others.
cognitive behavior approaches
Changing behavior by getting individuals to monitor, manage, and regulate their own behavior rather than letting it be controlled by external factors.
self instructed methods
Cognitive behavior techniques aimed at teaching individuals to modify their own behavior.
self regulatory learning
The self-generation and self-monitoring of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in order to reach a goal.