C7: Behavior and Social Cognitive Approaches
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sdjohnson123 Plus on April 6, 2010
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A relatively permanent influence on behavior, knowledge, and thinking skills, which comes about through experience.
The view that behavior should be explained by observable experiences, not by mental processes.
|mental processes|| |
Thoughts, feelings, and motives that cannot be observed by others.
|associate learning||Learning that two events are connected (associated).|
|classical conditioning|| |
A form of associative learning in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit a similar response (think Pavlov).
|systematic desensitization|| |
A method based on classical conditioning that reduces anxiety by getting the individual to associate deep relaxation with successive visualizations of increasingly anxiety-provoking situations.
|operant conditioning|| |
Also called instrumental conditioning, this is a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur. (think BF Skinner)
|reinforcement (reward)|| |
A consequence that increases the probability that a behavior will occur.
A consequence that decreases the probability that a behavior will occur.
|positive reinforcement|| |
Reinforcement based on the principle that the frequency of a response increases because it is followed by a rewarding stimulus.
|negative reinforcement|| |
Reinforcement based on the principle that the frequency of a response increases because of an aversive (unpleasant) stimulus is removed.
|applied behavior analysis|| |
Application of the principles of operant conditioning to change human behavior.
|Premack principle|| |
The principle that a high-probability activity can serve as a reinforcer for a low-probability.
|schedules of reinforcement|| |
Partial reinforcement timetables that determine when a response will be reinforced.
Putting reinforcement contingencies into writing.
An added stimulus or cue that is given just before a response will occur.
Teaching new behaviors by reinforcing successive approximations to a specified target behavior.
|time out|| |
Removing an individual from positive reinforcement.
|response cost||Taking a positive reinforcer away from an individual.|
|social cognitive theory|| |
Bandura's theory that social and cognitive factors, as well as behavior, play important roles in learning.
|self efficacy|| |
The belief that one can master a situation and produce positive outcomes.
|observational learning|| |
Learning that involves acquiring skills, strategies, and beliefs by observing others.
|cognitive behavior approaches|| |
Changing behavior by getting individuals to monitor, manage, and regulate their own behavior rather than letting it be controlled by external factors.
|self instructed methods|| |
Cognitive behavior techniques aimed at teaching individuals to modify their own behavior.
|self regulatory learning|| |
The self-generation and self-monitoring of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors in order to reach a goal.
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- "positive reinforcement" image
- "contracting" image
- "prompt" image
- "shaping" image
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