Psychology Chapter 6 Memory

146 terms by lynnmalkes

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

The system by which we retain information and bring it to mind is called
a) sensation.
b) cognition.
c) learning.
d) memory.
e) perception.

d) memory.

Many psychologists conceptualize human memory as a type of information processing system that has three
basic processes:
a) declarative, procedural, and explicit.
b) semantic, visual, and acoustic.
c) consolidation, elaboration, and rehearsal.
d) sensory, short-term, and long-term memory.
e) encoding, storage, and retrieval.

e) encoding, storage, and retrieval.

What is the order of processing in memory?
a) Storage, retrieval, encoding
b) Storage, encoding, retrieval
c) Encoding, storage, retrieval
d) Encoding, retrieval, storage
e) Retrieval, storage, encoding

c) Encoding, storage, retrieval

Memory encoding that is based on meaning is called
a) association encoding.
b) semantic encoding.
c) acoustic encoding.
d) visual encoding.
e) verbal encoding.

b) semantic encoding.

Encoding that involves converting auditory signals into strings of recognizable sounds is called
a) vocal encoding.
b) internal encoding.
c) acoustic encoding.
d) sub-auditory encoding.
e) semantic encoding.

c) acoustic encoding.

In memory encoding, mental picture is to ________ as meaning is to ________.
a) acoustic; semantic
b) semantic; visual
c) visual; acoustic
d) visual; semantic
e) semantic; acoustic

d) visual; semantic

Which of the following best describes memory storage?
a) The process of retaining information in memory
b) The recognition and storage of sensory impressions
c) The process of accessing and bringing into consciousness information stored in memory
d) The lingering mental representations of a visual image
e) The process of converting information into a form that can be stored in memory

a) The process of retaining information in memory

Remembering how many windows there are in your bedroom involves which type of memory encoding?
a) Acoustic
b) Eidetic
c) Echoic
d) Semantic
e) Visual

e) Visual

The ability to access stored information from memory often depends on the availability of ________ in
one's present environment that are associated with the original learning and help jog one's awareness.
a) traces
b) phonological loops
c) retrieval cues
d) sensory registers
e) engrams

c) retrieval cues

The best memory usually results from which type of encoding?
a) Verbal
b) Semantic
c) Acoustic
d) Visual
e) Echoic

b) Semantic

Retrieval of memories is most successful when cues present at recall are similar to those present during the
initial conversion of information into memory. This is referred to as which principle?
a) Encoding specificity
b) Serial position
c) Primacy
d) Chunking
e) Recency

a) Encoding specificity

The encoding specificity principle suggests that things
a) that are learned first are remembered better than things that are learned later.
b) that are learned later are remembered better than things that are learned first.
c) are remembered better when they are learned first and last.
d) are remembered better if cues during recall are similar to those present during learning.
e) are remembered better when large amounts of information are broken down into more manageable
bits

d) are remembered better if cues during recall are similar to those present during learning.

While Zubin was in the cheese section of a store, his wife called him on his cellular telephone to remind
him to pick up some cantaloupe. By the time he got to the produce section, he had forgotten what he was supposed to pick up, only to remember it again when he walked through the cheese section. This is an example of
a) the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.
b) context-dependent memory.
c) rehearsal.
d) semantic coding.
e) chunking

b) context-dependent memory.

Information is better recalled in the situation in which it was originally learned. This phenomenon is termed
a) memory without awareness.
b) retrieval-induced forgetting.
c) directed forgetting.
d) the context-dependent memory effect.
e) echoic memory

d) the context-dependent memory effect.

Godden and Baddeley conducted research showing that swimmers who learned material on the beach were better able to recall the material when tested on the beach than when immersed in water. This effect was an example of
a) the semantic encoding principle.
b) role-specific rehearsal.
c) context-dependent memory.
d) state-dependent memory.
e) chunking.

c) context-dependent memory.

A retrieval cue is a(n)
a) experimental task in which subjects are presented with a stimulus that primes them to respond in a
particular way.
b) process for enhancing retention of information by breaking the information into smaller, more easily
recalled chunks.
c) lingering mental representation of a sound.
d) lingering mental representation of a visual image.
e) stimulus associated with original learning that helps jog one's memory

e) stimulus associated with original learning that helps jog one's memory

People have superior recall for material if they are in the same physiological or psychological condition as
when they learned it. This is known as
a) state-dependent memory.
b) context-dependent memory.
c) short-term memory.
d) internal memory.
e) iconic memory

a) state-dependent memory.

When did Kenny experience the state-dependent memory effect?
a) When he studied for a history test while listening to music and could not remember all the facts of the
Civil War until he listened to the same CD
b) When he saw a horror movie and couldn't get one of the violent scenes out of his mind
c) When he was sad and left his cell phone on top of the TV set and didn't remember to look for it there
until the next time that he was sad
d) When he couldn't remember the name of the professor he had the year before in psychology, although
he was sure the name began with a "C" and had three syllables
e) When he was introduced to his girlfriend's uncle in the restaurant and couldn't remember his name
until they met again in the same restaurant

c) When he was sad and left his cell phone on top of the TV set and didn't remember to look for it there
until the next time that he was sad

The context-dependent memory effect would lead us to expect that Barrie, the victim of a mugging, would
be able to best recall details of the crime at which location?
a) At the police station, where he can think most clearly
b) At the scene of the crime, where he had the experience
c) At home, where he feels most secure
d) In his lawyer's office, where he feels most supported
e) None of the above; recall is not influenced by location

b) At the scene of the crime, where he had the experience

A memory storage system that contains memory of impressions for a very brief time (a few seconds or less)
is called
a) short-term memory
b) limited memory.
c) sensory memory.
d) temporary memory.
e) echoic memory

c) sensory memory.

The storage device of sensory memory is called the
a) phonological loop.
b) consolidation register.
c) temporary storage center.
d) sensory register.
e) semantic network.

d) sensory register.

In sensory memory, auditory stimuli are to ________ memory as visual stimuli are to ________ memory.
a) eidetic; iconic
b) iconic; echoic
c) echoic; iconic
d) acoustic; semantic
e) semantic; acoustic

c) echoic; iconic

Iconic memory is a type of
a) short-term memory.
b) visual sensory memory.
c) auditory sensory memory.
d) visual limited memory.
e) working memory.

b) visual sensory memory.

Echoic memory differs from iconic memory in that
a) it is more fleeting.
b) it is a type of photographic memory
c) it is longer-lasting
d) only iconic memory is stored in the sensory register.
e) only iconic memories can be transferred to short-term memory.

c) it is longer-lasting

Which of the following statements is true about eidetic imagery?
a) Eidetic images are perceived as clearly as actual photographs.
b) Eidetic imagery usually disappears by age five.
c) Eidetic imagery is more common in adults than in children.
d) About 20 percent of children have eidetic imagery.
e) Eidetic imagery is more commonly known as photographic memory.

e) Eidetic imagery is more commonly known as photographic memory.

Mark's friends say he has a "photographic memory." When Mark tries to recall a page in the textbook, the memory can be described as
a) blurred.
b) quite vivid.
c) clear as a photograph of the page.
d) grainy.
e) largely inaccurate.

b) quite vivid.

A form of visual memory in which a visual image is recalled in such vivid detail that it is as if the person recalling it is still looking at the original image is termed
a) eidetic imagery.
b) long-term potentiation.
c) echoic memory.
d) flashbulb memory.
e) retrospective memory.

a) eidetic imagery.

Which of the following statements is true about short-term memory?
a) Short-term memory has an unlimited capacity.
b) Short-term memory makes use of semantic coding.
c) Short-term memory allows a person to process and retain sensory information for about two minutes.
d) Use of maintenance rehearsal can extend short-term memory.
e) Short-term memory relies more on visual coding than acoustic coding.

d) Use of maintenance rehearsal can extend short-term memory.

Short-term memory relies primarily on
a) kinesthetic coding.
b) acoustic coding.
c) semantic coding.
d) eidetic coding.
e) visual coding.

b) acoustic coding.

Working memory is conceptualized as the mind's
a) pencil.
b) sharpener.
c) blackboard.
d) camera.
e) tape.

c) blackboard.

The memory system that allows one to hold and mull over information in one's mind for brief periods of time is called
a) working memory.
b) the sensory register.
c) long-term memory.
d) echoic memory.
e) eidetic memory.

a) working memory.

The capacity of short-term memory was investigated by
a) Loftus.
b) Sperling.
c) Baddeley.
d) Miller.
e) Tulving.

d) Miller.

The "Magic 7" refers to the
a) duration of sensory memory.
b) capacity of short-term memory.
c) capacity of sensory memory.
d) duration of short-term memory.
e) encoding modalities of long-term memory.

b) capacity of short-term memory.

What is the capacity of a person's short-term memory?
a) about 2-3 items
b) about 5-9 items
c) about 11-14 items
d) about 15-20 items
e) an unlimited number of items

b) about 5-9 items

The process of breaking a large amount of information down into smaller pieces to make it easier to recall is termed
a) maintenance rehearsal.
b) elaborative rehearsal.
c) a full-report technique.
d) a partial-report technique.
e) chunking.

e) chunking.

Sean stopped outside his professor's office to check on the answers to a quiz. When he began to write the answers down, his pen ran out of ink. He repeated the last four answers to himself while he rushed to his dormitory room to write them down. This is an example of
a) maintenance rehearsal.
b) elaborative rehearsal.
c) whole rehearsal.
d) partial rehearsal.
e) chunking.

a) maintenance rehearsal.

Maintenance rehearsal is
a) synonymous with chunking.
b) consciously repeating information over and over again.
c) connecting to-be-remembered information with already-stored information.
d) synonymous with whole rehearsal.
e) picturing an object, pattern, or image in your mind.

b) consciously repeating information over and over again.

When school kids say the Pledge of Allegiance, they break its one long sentence into twelve unvarying parts to make it easier to remember ("I pledge allegiance//to the flag//of the United States//of America//and to the republic//..."). This demonstrates which of the following?
a) Chunking
b) Maintenance rehearsal
c) Consolidation
d) The encoding specificity principle
e) Massed practice effects

a) Chunking

The four-component model of working memory consists of the phonological loop, the visuospatial sketchpad, the episodic buffer, and the
a) audio receiver.
b) office assistant.
c) central executive.
d) movement coordinator.
e) memory overseer.

c) central executive.

Michele's car hit a truck that stopped short in front of her on the expressway. When the truck suddenly started and began to speed away, Michele concentrated on retaining a visual image of the truck so that she would be able to describe it to the police. Which part of the four-component model of working memory was actively processing her information?
a) The episodic buffer
b) The central executive
c) The audio receiver
d) The visuospatial sketchpad
e) The phonological loop

d) The visuospatial sketchpad

Which component of working memory stores speech-based material?
a) Central executive
b) Visuospatial sketchpad
c) Episodic buffer
d) Phonological loop
e) Semantic switchboard

d) Phonological loop

In the four-component model of working memory, visual is to ________ as verbal is to ________.
a) episodic buffer; visuospatial sketchpad
b) phonological loop; central executive
c) visuospatial sketchpad; phonological loop
d) episodic buffer; central executive
e) central executive; episodic buffer

c) visuospatial sketchpad; phonological loop

In the four-component model of working memory, which component is best described as "the boss"?
a) The central executive
b) The visuospatial sketchpad
c) The phonological loop
d) The system manager
e) The episodic buffer

a) The central executive

In the four-component model of working memory, what is true about the "slaves"?
a) There are two of them.
b) They work independently of each other.
c) They are called slaves because they work around the clock even when we're dreaming.
d) They do the bidding of long-term memory.
e) Only one "slave" component can be active at a time.

b) They work independently of each other.

The four-component model of working memory suggests that which of the following pairs of tasks would interfere LEAST with one another?
a) reading a paragraph while trying to remember a string of numbers
b) scanning a visual display to locate a square surrounded by circles while thinking about the route you drive home each night
c) humming a tune to yourself while changing lanes on the highway
d) reading a paragraph while trying to remember a string of letters
e) listening to the radio while discussing the day's stock market results

c) humming a tune to yourself while changing lanes on the highway

Evelyn is baking a cake. She gingerly opens the oven door to try to decide whether the cake is ready. Based on the way the cake looks and the aroma emanating from it, Evelyn decides that it is. Which part of the four-component model of working memory allowed her to integrate the visual image of the cake with the olfactory information to make that instantaneous decision?
a) The central executive
b) The episodic buffer
c) The phonological loop
d) The modality linker
e) The visuospatial sketchpad

b) The episodic buffer

The process of converting unstable, short-term memory into lasting, stable memories is called
a) transduction.
b) maintenance rehearsal.
c) elaborative rehearsal.
d) consolidation.
e) chunking.

d) consolidation.

Which type(s) of sleep play(s) an important role in the consolidation of daily experiences into long-term memories?
a) REM sleep only
b) deep, slow-wave sleep only
c) light sleep only
d) both light sleep and REM sleep
e) both deep, slow-wave sleep and REM sleep

e) both deep, slow-wave sleep and REM sleep

Compared to short-term memory, long-term memory relies ________ on semantic coding and ________ on acoustic coding.
a) more; less
b) less; more
c) less; less
d) more; more
e) more; just about the same

a) more; less

When Jacques wants to learn a new concept, he attempts to connect it with previously existing knowledge. This is an example of
a) elaborative rehearsal.
b) maintenance rehearsal.
c) executive rehearsal.
d) consolidation.
e) encoding specificity.

a) elaborative rehearsal.

When Agnes hears the word banana, she automatically thinks of concepts such as yellow, monkeys, and fruit. This may be a demonstration of
a) consolidation.
b) elaborative processing.
c) the semantic network model.
d) maintenance rehearsal.
e) chunking.

c) the semantic network model.

Which model suggests that long-term memory is organized in terms of an elaborate arrangement of associated concepts?
a) The semantic network model
b) The constructionist model
c) The three-stage model
d) The levels-of-processing model
e) The three-component model

a) The semantic network model

The World Wide Web's design, with its elaborate structure of interlinking concepts, is based on which model of memory?
a) Three-component model
b) Constructionist model
c) Levels-of-processing model
d) Semantic network model
e) Three-stage model

d) Semantic network model

The semantic network model proposes a process in which thinking of a concept leads to a rippling effect that triggers other related concepts. That process is called
a) consolidation.
b) spreading activation.
c) neuronal networking.
d) serial position.
e) savings.

b) spreading activation.

The levels-of-processing model explains the
a) interaction among the three components of working memory.
b) organization of the semantic network model.
c) superiority of elaborative rehearsal to maintenance rehearsal.
d) encoding specificity principle.
e) process of consolidating memories during sleep.

c) superiority of elaborative rehearsal to maintenance rehearsal.

Which of the following statements is true about Tim Berners-Lee?
a) He introduced his invention in the mid-1980s.
b) He originally thought about naming his invention "Mess."
c) He got the idea for his invention from his father's mathematics books.
d) He modeled his invention on the workings of the human brain.
e) He is a psychologist.

d) He modeled his invention on the workings of the human brain.

Who invented the World Wide Web?
a) George Miller
b) Tim Berners-Lee
c) Bill Gates
d) Hermann Ebbinghaus
e) Elizabeth Loftus

b) Tim Berners-Lee

Procedural memory is to ________ as declarative memory is to ________.
a) knowing how; knowing that
b) knowing that; knowing how
c) knowing when; knowing who
d) knowing that; knowing who
e) knowing how; knowing who

a) knowing how; knowing that

Which of the following statements is true about declarative memory?
a) Declarative memory is a type of memory stored in short-term memory.
b) Declarative memory is memory of facts and personal information.
c) Declarative memory involves motor or performance skills that cannot be verbalized.
d) Declarative memory is described as implicit.
e) Declarative memory operates largely unconsciously.

b) Declarative memory is memory of facts and personal information.

Declarative memory is also known as
a) procedural memory.
b) demonstrative memory.
c) semantic memory.
d) explicit memory.
e) implicit memory.

d) explicit memory.

June recalled a procedural memory when she remembered
a) that she saw the tiger in the zoo last month.
b) who gave her her favorite birthday present, the doll with the braids.
c) how to play "Chopsticks" on the piano.
d) why she was not supposed to play with her mother's makeup.
e) where she left her mittens.

c) how to play "Chopsticks" on the piano.

Which of the following best describes retrospective memory?
a) Memory of past experiences or events and previously acquired information
b) Memory of how to do things that require motor or performance skills
c) Photographic memory
d) Memory of things one plans to do in the future
e) Memory accessed without conscious effort

a) Memory of past experiences or events and previously acquired information

Another name for episodic memory is
a) semantic memory.
b) prospective memory.
c) retrospective memory.
d) procedural memory.
e) autobiographical memory.

e) autobiographical memory.

Your general world information (e.g., state capitals, U.S. presidents, etc.) is stored in
a) episodic memory.
b) semantic memory.
c) prospective memory.
d) retrospective memory.
e) short-term memory.

b) semantic memory.

Keiko knows that Salt Lake City is the capital of Utah and that George Washington was the first president of the United States. This information is stored in
a) procedural memory.
b) declarative memory.
c) historical memory.
d) representative memory.
e) prospective memory.

b) declarative memory.

Cynthia's retrospective memory was displayed when she recalled
a) how to ice skate effortlessly, after a period of three years.
b) every word on the page of a book after looking at it briefly.
c) that Bismarck was the capital of North Dakota.
d) how to assemble the juicer, even though she had lost the instruction manual.
e) that she was going to start a new dance class a week from next Tuesday.

c) that Bismarck was the capital of North Dakota.

Which question is most likely to be associated with episodic memory?
a) Who wrote The Catcher in the Rye?
b) Where did I go on my first date?
c) What time is my appointment with the dentist next week?
d) Who was the first astronaut to walk on the moon?
e) Which courses will I take in my next semester of college?

b) Where did I go on my first date?

Morty says, "It's time to take my medication." Which type of memory has Morty relied on in this example?
a) Retrospective memory
b) Prospective memory
c) Autobiographical memory
d) Episodic memory
e) Semantic memory

b) Prospective memory

Paula's procedural memory told her
a) who was having a party that night.
b) how to use makeup to conceal the blemish on her cheek.
c) where she put her gold watch.
d) what time her date was due to arrive.
e) why her parents wanted her to be home before midnight.

b) how to use makeup to conceal the blemish on her cheek.

Grace knows how to tie a square knot and how to drive an automobile with a standard transmission. These are examples of
a) declarative memory.
b) semantic memory.
c) procedural memory.
d) functional memory.
e) episodic memory.

c) procedural memory.

Which of the following statements is true about procedural memory?
a) Procedural memory is used when we need to consciously recall a set of procedures to be followed in completing a task.
b) Procedural memories are easily verbalized.
c) Procedural memory is related to implicit memory.
d) Procedural memory involves personal experiences.
e) Procedural memory is a type of short-term memory.

c) Procedural memory is related to implicit memory.

Implicit memory can be demonstrated through the use of
a) free recall.
b) priming tasks.
c) semantic network models.
d) levels of processing.
e) forgetting curves.

b) priming tasks.

One difference between declarative memory and procedural memory is that
a) declarative memory has to do with "knowing how," whereas procedural memory has to do with "knowing that."
b) declarative memories are implicit, whereas procedural memories are explicit.
c) declarative memories are semantic or episodic, whereas procedural memories are retrospective or prospective.
d) declarative memories are easy to verbalize, whereas procedural memories are not.
e) declarative memory is short-term, whereas procedural memory is long-term.

d) declarative memories are easy to verbalize, whereas procedural memories are not.

The view that memory is based on recreating the past rather than passively storing the past is called
a) semantic network theory.
b) encoding specificity theory.
c) context-dependent memory.
d) constructionist theory.
e) levels-of-processing theory.

d) constructionist theory.

An organized knowledge structure reflecting one's past experience and future expectations is called a(n)
a) engram.
b) mnemonic.
c) memory schema.
d) episodic buffer.
e) reconstruction.

c) memory schema.

Gwendolyn's negative stereotype of how Asians behave is an example of a
a) prospective memory.
b) retrospective memory.
c) memory schema.
d) semantic network model.
e) priming task.

c) memory schema.

According to constructionist theory,
a) memories are never accurate reflections of events.
b) memories are more like realistic paintings than impressionist paintings.
c) memories are carbon copies of reality.
d) memory is better when an event coincides with one's set of beliefs.
e) memories are accurate, but, like cameras, they have a point of view.

d) memory is better when an event coincides with one's set of beliefs.

In a study reported in the text, African American children were told stories in which light- and dark-complexioned African American characters were associated with either positive or negative attributes. The children were then asked to recall the stories. What were the results?
a) The children remembered more stories in which the light-complexioned characters had negative attributes and the dark-complexioned characters had positive attributes.
b) The children remembered more stories in which the light-complexioned characters had positive attributes and the dark-complexioned characters had negative attributes.
c) The children preferred stories in which the light-complexioned characters had positive attributes and the dark-complexioned characters had negative attributes.
d) The children preferred stories in which the light-complexioned characters had negative attributes and the dark-complexioned characters had positive attributes.
e) The children were able to remember all stories equally well, regardless of the attributes assigned to the characters.

b) The children remembered more stories in which the light-complexioned characters had positive attributes and the dark-complexioned characters had negative attributes.

Compared to other long-term memories, flashbulb memories are
a) less vivid and less accurate.
b) more vivid and more accurate.
c) more vivid and just as inaccurate.
d) less vivid and more accurate.
e) more vivid and less accurate.

c) more vivid and just as inaccurate.

Even though she was only a toddler at the time, 45-year-old Jean has a vivid picture in her mind of her mother weeping when the television announced that President Kennedy had been assassinated. Jean's experience is an example of which phenomenon?
a) Retrograde amnesia
b) Tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon
c) Long-term potentiation
d) Misinformation effect
e) Flashbulb memory

e) Flashbulb memory

What is true about flashbulb memories?
a) They are more accurate than ordinary memories.
b) Prolonged or extreme stress is liable to produce vivid flashbulb-type memories.
c) Flashbulb memories are emotionally charged.
d) Flashbulb memories are never accurate.
e) Flashbulb memories tend to fade after a couple of months.

c) Flashbulb memories are emotionally charged.

Wanda suffered for a long time while in an abusive, stressful relationship. After she and her boyfriend broke up, she did not have vivid memories of those three years. Instead, the stress hormones released by her ________ gland(s) dampened her memories.
a) pancreas
b) adrenal
c) thyroid
d) pituitary
e) parathyroid

b) adrenal

Elizabeth Loftus had subjects view a film of a car accident involving a stop sign. One group was misinformed and told that the sign was a yield sign. Later, when both groups were asked to describe what they saw, the misinformed group
a) was more likely to say they saw a yield sign.
b) tended to recall many more correct details about the accident.
c) reported less confidence in their ability to recall.
d) stubbornly stuck to their memory of having seen a stop sign
e) recalled many additional false "facts" about the accident.

a) was more likely to say they saw a yield sign.

Which of the following statements is true about eyewitness testimony?
a) Eyewitness testimony is often flawed and full of errors.
b) Eyewitnesses are more likely to make mistakes when identifying members of their own race than when identifying members of another race.
c) Eyewitness confidence in their testimony is strongly related to the accuracy of their testimony.
d) People who take longer to answer questions in giving testimony are more likely to be accurate than those who respond quickly.
e) Average-looking people are more likely to be accurately remembered and identified than unattractive looking people.

a) Eyewitness testimony is often flawed and full of errors.

Five friends witnessed a store robbery. Who is likely to be the most accurate eyewitness?
a) Pia, who is the only one of the five who is of a different race than the perpetrator
b) Ben, who answers the police's questions after taking a long time to think about each one
c) Celia, who used to work in a store similar to the clothing store that was robbed
d) Anthony, who is the only one of the five being asked suggestive questions by the rookie policeman
e) Valerie, who is the only one of the five who considered the perpetrator to be just average-looking

c) Celia, who used to work in a store similar to the clothing store that was robbed

In investigative questioning, how do leading questions and open-ended questions compare?
a) Open-ended questions lead to more accuracy but fewer details than leading questions.
b) Open-ended questions lead to more accuracy and more details than leading questions.
c) Leading questions lead to more accuracy but fewer details than open-ended questions.
d) Leading questions lead to more accuracy and more details than open-ended questions.
e) Both types of questions lead equally to many details but little accuracy.

a) Open-ended questions lead to more accuracy but fewer details than leading questions.

Which of the following psychologists is a leading expert on eyewitness testimony?
a) Baddeley
b) Loftus
c) Lashley
d) Tulving
e) Miller

b) Loftus

Which of the following calls into question the credibility of recovered memories of childhood abuse?
a) Research showing that false memories can be created under experimental conditions
b) Research showing that people who claim to be abuse victims tend to be dishonest
c) Research showing that hypnosis always heightens suggestibility to false memories
d) Research showing that the misinformation effect played a key role in several cases of false allegations
e) The horrific nature of the memories

a) Research showing that false memories can be created under experimental conditions

What can we conclude about the validity of long-repressed memories of childhood abuse?
a) They are usually false memories.
b) It's not possible to tell which ones are true and which ones are false.
c) The ones that are uncovered under hypnosis are likely to be true.
d) They are mostly false because childhood sexual abuse is not that common.
e) They are probably true because those who are abused in childhood are apt to totally repress what happened to them.

b) It's not possible to tell which ones are true and which ones are false.

Among theories of forgetting, decay theory is also known as
a) retrieval theory.
b) savings theory.
c) trace theory.
d) fading theory.
e) constructionist theory.

c) trace theory.

The idea that memory gradually disintegrates over time is the basis of
a) decay theory.
b) interference theory.
c) retrieval theory.
d) encoding specificity.
e) disintegration theory.

a) decay theory.

One of Ebbinghaus's innovations was the use of what as study material for testing memory?
a) Uncommon adjectives
b) Calendar dates
c) Foreign words
d) Nonsense syllables
e) Abstract symbols

d) Nonsense syllables

The Ebbinghaus Forgetting Curve suggests that forgetting
a) occurs slowly at first and then speeds up.
b) occurs uniformly over time.
c) occurs quickly at first and then slows down.
d) does not occur until at least 24 hours have passed.
e) is complete within the first few hours.

c) occurs quickly at first and then slows down.

In his studies of memory, Ebbinghaus found that ________ of the information was lost by the end of the first day after studying and that ________ of the information was lost after a month had passed.
a) 22 percent; 66 percent
b) 33 percent; 66 percent
c) 33 percent; 80 percent
d) 66 percent; 80 percent
e) 66 percent; 99 percent

d) 66 percent; 80 percent

Herman counts the number of times it takes to rehearse a list of nonsense syllables in order to memorize it. Next he counts the number of times it takes to relearn the list after a month has passed. Herman then calculates the difference between these numbers of times and determines the percentage gain he made between the two efforts at memorization. Herman uses this figure as a measure of memory retention. Which technique is Herman using?
a) Savings method
b) Method of loci
c) Peg word system
d) Massed practice
e) Encoding specificity

a) Savings method

Jeffrey crams for all of his exams. In scientific terms, Jeffrey's approach to memorization is called
a) spaced practice.
b) distributed practice.
c) massed practice.
d) delayed practice.
e) overlearning.

c) massed practice.

Experts suggest that college students should distribute their study sessions throughout the semester rather than preparing for exams by cramming. This means that college students should use which approach to memorization?
a) Spaced practice
b) Massed practice
c) Distributed learning
d) Delayed practice
e) Overlearning

a) Spaced practice

Interference theory explains forgetting in terms of
a) inadequate retrieval cues.
b) lack of practice.
c) similarity of events.
d) encoding failure.
e) mental fatigue.

c) similarity of events.

Proactive interference occurs when
a) older memories interfere with newer memories.
b) newer memories interfere with older memories.
c) more frequently experienced events interfere with less frequently experienced events.
d) less frequently experienced events interfere with more frequently experienced events.
e) items in the middle of a list interfere with memorizing the first and last items.

a) older memories interfere with newer memories.

Wendy's forgetting was due to proactive interference when she
a) remembered what her scores were on the SATs that she took the year before, but not what her scores were on the PSATs that she took two years earlier.
b) recalled the names of the winners on her favorite reality show for the past two seasons but not the earlier ones.
c) couldn't remember her new best friend's cell phone number because she kept confusing it with her former best friend's cell phone number.
d) failed to remember her appointment with the dentist because unconsciously she wanted to miss it.
e) remembered the first and last items on her "to do" list, but not the one in the middle.

c) couldn't remember her new best friend's cell phone number because she kept confusing it with her former best friend's cell phone number.

While Althea was filling out a job application, memory of her current address prevented her from accurately remembering her previous address. This is an example of
a) retrograde amnesia.
b) anterograde amnesia.
c) retroactive interference.
d) proactive interference.
e) the serial position effect.

c) retroactive interference.

The serial position effect occurs when people
a) remember the first things on a list but forget the last ones.
b) remember the last things on a list but forget the first ones.
c) remember the first and last things on a list better than the middle ones.
d) have difficulty remembering the first and last things on a list.
e) remember just about every other item on a list.

c) remember the first and last things on a list better than the middle ones.

"I can count to ten," says 4-year-old Tiffany. "It goes like this: one, two, three, seven, six, nine, ten." Tiffany's counting exemplifies the
a) primacy effect.
b) recency effect.
c) serial position effect.
d) spaced practice effect.
e) alphabet effect.

c) serial position effect.

In memory processes, the primacy effect results in
a) inferior memory for items at the beginning of a list.
b) inferior memory for items that were overlearned.
c) superior memory for items at the end of a list.
d) superior memory for items at the beginning of a list.
e) superior memory for items at both the beginning and the end of a list.

d) superior memory for items at the beginning of a list.

In memory, as time passes between learning and recall,
a) both the primacy effect and the recency effect weaken.
b) neither the primacy effect nor the recency effect weakens.
c) the primacy effect but not the recency effect weakens.
d) the recency effect but not the primacy effect weakens.
e) the recency effect becomes stronger and the primacy effect weakens.

d) the recency effect but not the primacy effect weakens.

To avoid interference, your text recommends doing which of the following?
a) Stay up and study all night for a test, as sleep can erase memory.
b) Don't waste mental resources by overlearning information.
c) Schedule classes in a block without a break to take full advantage of your maximum time of alertness.
d) Practice beyond the point necessary to reproduce material without error.
e) Study subjects that are similar in content in back-to-back fashion.

d) Practice beyond the point necessary to reproduce material without error.

Neville is memorizing parts of the brain for his psychology exam. Neville rehearses the information over and over, well beyond the point where he can recognize and list all of the parts of the brain. Which memory technique is Neville utilizing?
a) Eidetic imagery
b) Mnemonics
c) Distributed practice
d) Spaced practice
e) Overlearning

e) Overlearning

When Louise told her friend about a book she had just read, she was able to provide a lot of details about the last several pages. This demonstrates the
a) spaced practice effect.
b) distributed practice effect.
c) primacy effect.
d) recency effect.
e) massed versus spaced practice effect.

d) recency effect.

Which theory of forgetting suggests that forgetting is the result of a failure to access stored memories?
a) Interference theory
b) Constructionist theory
c) Three-stage theory
d) Decay theory
e) Retrieval theory

e) Retrieval theory

Encoding failure occurs when
a) information to be retrieved never got into the brain.
b) old information interferes with newer information.
c) new information interferes with older encoded information.
d) retrieval encoding cues are missing.
e) information to be retrieved is just out of reach.

a) information to be retrieved never got into the brain.

Martha only found out from the police that she was an eyewitness after the fact. At the time, it just seemed like another city dweller in a hurry was getting into his car and speeding away, so she made no effort to remember any details about the man or the car. Martha's inability to remember is most likely due to
a) proactive interference.
b) retroactive interference.
c) retrograde amnesia.
d) encoding failure.
e) the serial position effect.

d) encoding failure.

While taking her psychology exam, Edith is certain that she knows who developed the forgetting curve. She remembers studying it, and she can get a vague picture of where the material is in her textbook. Edith's certainty that she knows something, combined with her inability to recall it, is called
a) dissociative amnesia.
b) proactive interference.
c) retroactive interference.
d) the serial position effect.
e) the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

e) the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon.

Which of the following statements is true about the tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) phenomenon?
a) The phenomenon is relatively rare, occurring about twice a year to the average college student.
b) Most TOTs involve common nouns, such as people's names.
c) Only a small percentage of TOTs are successfully resolved.
d) TOTs tend to decrease in later life.
e) TOT memories that are not retrieved within 10 minutes are not likely to be retrieved at all.

b) Most TOTs involve common nouns, such as people's names.

Motivated forgetting is another name for
a) repression.
b) regression.
c) retroactive interference.
d) anterograde amnesia.
e) childhood amnesia.

a) repression.

Repression was first proposed by
a) Loftus.
b) Freud.
c) Miller.
d) Baddeley.
e) Ebbinghaus.

b) Freud.

According to Freud, we repress certain things because
a) information deteriorates and fades away over time.
b) the forgotten material is too anxiety-provoking.
c) that which was forgotten bore too much similarity to events that were remembered.
d) we never encoded them into our memory in the first place.
e) they are too inconsequential and ordinary to remember.

b) the forgotten material is too anxiety-provoking.

Which student is taking a test that is a recognition task?
a) Elaine, who takes an exam in her Spanish class in which she is presented with a word in English and then must write the Spanish equivalent
b) Erin, who takes an oral exam in her astronomy class in which she must list the planets in order
c) Melissa, who takes a multiple-choice exam in her geography class and needs to pick the capital city out of four
d) Sharon, who takes an essay exam in her history class in which she must discuss four factors influencing the outcome of the Vietnam War
e) Quincy, whose biology teacher shows the class a video of a dissected rat and asks them to name the parts of the body that she is pointing out

c) Melissa, who takes a multiple-choice exam in her geography class and needs to pick the capital city out of four

In general, which type of memory task produces better retrieval?
a) Serial recall
b) Paired-associates recall
c) Free recall
d) Recall
e) Recognition

e) Recognition

Loss of memories of past events is
a) retrograde amnesia.
b) anterograde amnesia.
c) proactive interference.
d) retroactive interference.
e) dissociative amnesia.

a) retrograde amnesia.

Retrograde amnesia is to anterograde amnesia as ________ is to ________.
a) ordinary memory; traumatic memory
b) childhood; old age
c) old age; childhood
d) loss of old memories; loss of new memories
e) loss of new memories; loss of old memories

d) loss of old memories; loss of new memories

In anterograde amnesia,
a) there is an inability to form new long-term memories.
b) there is an inability to retrieve old long-term memories.
c) new information interferes with old.
d) old information interferes with new.
e) there is an inability to remember old or new information.

a) there is an inability to form new long-term memories.

Paul has suffered a head injury that causes him to have no memory of the events preceding the injury. He is suffering from
a) retrograde amnesia.
b) anterograde amnesia.
c) childhood amnesia.
d) retroactive interference.
e) dissociative amnesia.

a) retrograde amnesia.

Ella has suffered a head injury. She is no longer able to form new long-term memories. She is suffering from
a) retrograde amnesia.
b) anterograde amnesia.
c) proactive interference.
d) dissociative amnesia.
e) childhood amnesia.

b) anterograde amnesia.

When asked about her earliest memory, Norma Jean says, "I can't remember anything before kindergarten. I remember being in the Christmas play at school." Norma Jean's inability to recall earlier events in her life is best described as which kind of amnesia?
a) Infantile
b) Retrograde
c) Anterograde
d) Dissociative
e) Childhood

e) Childhood

Which of the following individuals most likely has dissociative amnesia?
a) Rebecca, who has no memory of anything that happened before her fourth birthday party
b) Perry, who has Alzheimer's disorder and is not aware that he is living in a nursing home
c) Tyler, who became an amnesiac after diving into the water and hitting his head on the side of the pool
d) Sean, who drank too much and can't remember what happened before he passed out at the party
e) Cathy, a teenager who suffered sexual abuse and doesn't remember how she ended up in a homeless shelter

e) Cathy, a teenager who suffered sexual abuse and doesn't remember how she ended up in a homeless shelter

Psychologically caused amnesia is referred to as
a) dissociative amnesia.
b) retrograde amnesia.
c) reactive amnesia.
d) anterograde amnesia.
e) infantile amnesia.

a) dissociative amnesia.

What is an engram?
a) A nonsense syllable
b) A neuronal network
c) A physical trace of a memory
d) A retrieval cue
e) An acronym

c) A physical trace of a memory

Who exerted considerable effort trying to locate the engram?
a) Loftus
b) Freud
c) Lashley
d) Miller
e) Kandel

c) Lashley

The overall outcome of Lashley's work was the
a) discovery of different engrams for different sorts of memories.
b) realization that memories are not stored in any specific brain structure.
c) discovery of a single engram for various sorts of memories.
d) localization of engrams in the hippocampus.
e) confirmation that memories are housed in the cerebral cortex.

b) realization that memories are not stored in any specific brain structure.

Memory circuits in the brain that consist of complicated networks of nerve cells are called
a) engrams.
b) phonological loops.
c) memory schemas.
d) semantic networks.
e) neuronal networks.

e) neuronal networks.

Regarding ideas about where memories are stored, the current belief is that
a) engrams do exist in the way Lashley believed.
b) long-term memories are stored in the amygdala.
c) engrams exist but currently available technology does not permit identifying them.
d) memories are stored in neuronal networks rather than individual cells.
e) the engram is housed in the brainstem.

d) memories are stored in neuronal networks rather than individual cells.

Which limbic system brain structure plays an important role in the memory of facts and daily experiences?
a) The hypothalamus
b) The hippocampus
c) The thalamus
d) The medulla
e) The brainstem

b) The hippocampus

With regard to memory, what role does the hippocampus play?
a) It is the final destiny for new memories.
b) It stores short-term memories.
c) It is involved in the formation of procedural memories.
d) It processes semantic and episodic memories.
e) It encodes all implicit memories.

d) It processes semantic and episodic memories.

Which of the following brain structures plays an important role in encoding memories charged with fear and anger?
a) The amygdala
b) The thalamus
c) The hypothalamus
d) The cerebral cortex
e) The brainstem

a) The amygdala

Eric Kandel studied formation of memories in the
a) garden slug.
b) sea snail.
c) tree frog.
d) white rat.
e) smart fly.

b) sea snail.

In his research on memory, Kandel demonstrated that
a) memory power can be boosted through the use of mnemonics.
b) damage to the hippocampus can prevent the formation of new memories.
c) memories are stored in complex networks of interconnected brain cells called neuronal networks.
d) manipulation of particular genes can enhance learning and memory, producing "smart" organisms.
e) memory formation involves biochemical changes occurring at the synaptic level.

e) memory formation involves biochemical changes occurring at the synaptic level.

Kandel classically conditioned a sea snail. The conditioned stimulus was ________, and the conditioned response was ________.
a) a mild electric shock; withdrawing the gills
b) a puff of air; moving backwards
c) a squirt of water; withdrawing the gills
d) the light touch of a feather; moving backwards
e) a buzzing tone; withdrawing the gills

c) a squirt of water; withdrawing the gills

The idea that synapses can be strengthened by repeated mild electrical stimulation was first investigated in the
a) rat.
b) pigeon.
c) mouse.
d) rabbit.
e) sea snail.

e) sea snail.

The strengthening of synaptic connections by repeated electrical stimulation is known as
a) long-term potentiation.
b) short-term potentiation.
c) spreading activation.
d) functional potentiation.
e) long-term consolidation.

a) long-term potentiation.

Many researchers believe that in order for long-term memory to occur, which of the following needs to happen?
a) A regeneration of neurons
b) The creation of new synapses
c) An increase in the availability of neurotransmitters
d) Long-term potentiation
e) A decrease in the number of neuronal networks

d) Long-term potentiation

What is the current status of research on memory-enhancing drugs?
a) Strong evidence that the drugs enhance memory in chimpanzees
b) Strong evidence that the drugs enhance memory, but only in persons who suffer from Alzheimer's disorder
c) Strong evidence that the drugs enhance memory, but only in persons who do not suffer from Alzheimer's disorder
d) Strong evidence that the drugs enhance memory in both persons who suffer from Alzheimer's disorder and persons who do not
e) No compelling scientific evidence that the drugs enhance memory in humans

e) No compelling scientific evidence that the drugs enhance memory in humans

The major role of genes in memory may be their ability to control
a) the speed with which new neurons are regenerated.
b) neurotransmitter uptake.
c) the production of proteins that transform short-term memories into long-term memories.
d) which experiences are encoded.
e) the long-term potentiation of synaptic connections.

c) the production of proteins that transform short-term memories into long-term memories.

A device for improving memory is a(n)
a) mnemonic.
b) engram.
c) consolidator.
d) savings method.
e) visuospatial sketchpad.

a) mnemonic.

Which of the following is a mnemonic that involves forming a word composed of the first letters of a series of words?
a) Acrostic
b) Acronym
c) Engram
d) Imagery
e) Chunking

b) Acronym

In order to remember that he needs to buy celery, bread, and tissues, Wayne pictures his car with a steering wheel made out of celery stalks, a seat upholstered with slices of bread, and a tissue box where the rear-view mirror is supposed to be. Which mnemonic is Wayne using?
a) A visual cue
b) Visual imagery
c) Acrostic
d) Chunking
e) Acronym

b) Visual imagery

To learn the EGBDF musical scale, Robbie uses the saying "Every Good Boy Deserves Fudge." Which mnemonic technique is Robbie using?
a) acrostic
b) acronym
c) imagery
d) rhyming
e) chunking

a) acrostic

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set