Leader of Egyptian modernization in the early nineteenth century. He ruled Egypt as an Ottoman governor, but had imperial ambitions. His descendents ruled Egypt until overthrown in 1952.
Infantry, originally of slave origin, armed with firearms and constitutuing the elite of the Ottoman army from the fifteenth century until the corps was abolished in 1826.
The Ottoman province in the Balkans that rose up against Janissary control in the early 1800s. After World War II the central province of Yugoslavia. Serb leaders struggled to maintain dominance as the Yugoslav federation dissolved in the 1900s.
"Restructuring" reforms by the nineteenth-century Ottoman rulers, intended to mive civil law away from the control of religious elites and make the military and the bureaucracy more efficient.
Conflict between the Russian and Ottoman Empires fought primarily in the Crimean Peninsula. To prevent Russian expansion, Britain and France sent troops to support the Ottomans.
The right of foreign residents in a country to live under the laws of their native country and disregard the laws of the host country. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, European and American nationals living in certain areas of Chinese and Ottoman cities were granted this right.
Movement of young intellectuals to institute liberal reforms and build a feeling of national identity in the Ottoman Empire in the second half of the nineteenth century.
Russian intellectuals in the early nineteenth century who favored resisting western European influences and taking pride in the traditional peasant values and institutions of the Slavic people.
Movement among Russian intellectuals in the second half of the nineteenth century to identify culturally and politically with the Slavic peoples of eastern Europe.
Abotrive attempt by army officers to take control of the Russian government upon the death of Tsar Alexander I in 1825.
War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China.
Herediatary military servents of the Qing Empire, in large part descendants of peoples of various origins who had fought for the founders of the empire.
Treaty of Nanking
The treaty that concluded the Opium War. It awarded Britain a large indemnity from the Qing Empire, denied the Qing government tariff control over some of its own borders, opened additional ports of residence to Britons, and ceded the island of Hong Kong to Britain.
Cities opened to foreign residents as a result of the forced treaties between the Qing Empire and foreign signatories. In the treaty ports, foreigners enjoyed extraterritoriality.
A clause in a commercial treaty that awards to any later signatories all the privileges previously granted to the original signatories.
The most destructive civil war before the twintieth century. A Christian-inspired rural reellion that threatened to topple the Qing Empire.