Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

1. Continuing to operate a fuel-inefficient car despite warnings about the effect of greenhouse gases best illustrates the dynamics of:
A) the fundamental attribution error.
B) the just-world phenomenon.
C) social loafing.
D) the mere exposure effect.
E) a social trap.

E) a social trap.

2. An example of the fundamental attribution error is illustrated in our tendency to underestimate the extent to which others' behavior is influenced by:
A) their political philosophy.
B) their level of motivation.
C) personality traits.
D) genetics.
E) social roles.

E) social roles.

3. The best explanation for the inaction of bystanders during the Kitty Genovese murder is that they failed to:
A) do any of the above.
B) experience any empathy for a stranger.
C) assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.
D) realize that the incident was really an emergency situation.
E) notice that the incident was taking place.

C) assume personal responsibility for helping the victim.

4. The discomfort we feel when two thoughts are inconsistent is called:
A) group polarization.
B) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
C) cognitive dissonance.
D) the fundamental attribution error.
E) deindividuation.

C) cognitive dissonance.

5. Only when experimental participants were informed that a woman was raped did they perceive the woman's behavior as inviting rape. This best illustrates that victim-blaming is fueled by:
A) the bystander effect.
B) deindividuation.
C) hindsight bias.
D) the mere exposure effect.
E) the foot-in-the-door-phenomenon.

C) hindsight bias.

6. The fact that human aggression varies widely from culture to culture most strongly suggests that it is not:
A) influenced by social norms.
B) a result of group polarization.
C) a product of deindividuation.
D) a reaction to frustration.
E) an instinctive behavior.

E) an instinctive behavior.

7. The two-factor theory of emotion has been used to explain:
A) passionate love.
B) social facilitation.
C) the just-world phenomenon.
D) the bystander effect.
E) the mere exposure effect.

A) passionate love.

8. In Milgram's obedience experiments, "teachers" exhibited a somewhat lower level of compliance with an experimenter's orders when:
A) the "learner" was in another room where his physical well-being couldn't be observed by the "teacher."
B) the "teacher" was instructed to administer the learning test and someone else was asked to shock the "learner."
C) the "learner" complained of a slight heart condition just before the experiment began.
D) the "learner" screamed as the shocks became more punishing.
E) the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.

E) the experiment was not associated with a prestigious institution like Yale University.

9. Nora, Ko, Ian, and May each think that Ms. Akey may be a slightly better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. After discussing why each of them believes this to be so, they all conclude that Ms. Akey is definitely a much better teacher than Mr. Schwenke. This episode provides an example of:
A) the mere exposure effect.
B) deindividuation.
C) social facilitation.
D) group polarization.
E) the fundamental attribution error.

D) group polarization.

10. Elsworth is unusually attractive and intelligent, and she works hard to please her husband. He displays little affection for her, however, and spends most of the family's resources on his own interests. Elsworth's relationship with her husband is best characterized as:
A) companionate.
B) inequitable.
C) complementary.
D) reciprocal.
E) deindividuated.

B) inequitable.

11. An eagerness to believe that victims of a natural disaster are being punished by God for their sins best illustrates a potential consequence of:
A) the bystander effect.
B) the just-world phenomenon.
C) the mere exposure effect.
D) deindividuation.
E) ingroup bias.

B) the just-world phenomenon.

12. Darley and Latané observed that most university students failed to help a person having an epileptic seizure when they thought there were four other witnesses to the emergency. The students' failure to help is best explained in terms of:
A) their limited feelings of responsibility.
B) indifference and apathy.
C) the ingroup bias.
D) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
E) a failure to interpret the incident as an emergency.

A) their limited feelings of responsibility.

13. Solomon Asch reported that individuals conformed to a group's judgment of the lengths of lines:
A) only when members of the group were of high status.
B) only when the group was composed of at least six members.
C) even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect.
D) even when the group seemed uncertain and repeatedly altered its judgment.

C) even when the group judgment was clearly incorrect.

14. Social loafing has been found to be especially noticeable among ________ in cultures that value ________.
A) men; collectivism
B) women; collectivism
C) men; individualism
D) women; individualism

C) men; individualism

15. Expert pool players were observed to make 71 percent of their shots when alone. When four people watched them, they made 80 percent of their shots. This best illustrates:
A) group polarization.
B) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
C) the mere exposure effect.
D) social facilitation.
E) the bystander effect.

D) social facilitation.

16. A social trap is a situation in which:
A) false stereotypes influence how people interpret the behavior of others.
B) the rich get richer and the poor get poorer.
C) all people in a conflict situation suffer, no matter how cooperatively they behave.
D) the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm.
E) there are not enough resources to satisfy the needs of all members of a social group.

D) the pursuit of self-interest leads to collective harm.

17. GRIT attempts to reduce conflict through:
A) conciliation.
B) third-party mediation.
C) pacifism.
D) intimidation.

A) conciliation.

18. The tendency to favor members of one's own group is likely when people are formed into distinguishable groups on the basis of:
A) common occupational concerns.
B) identical racial backgrounds.
C) any of the above criteria.
D) shared religious beliefs.
E) similar leisure-time hobbies.

C) any of the above criteria.

19. The Milgram obedience experiments were controversial because the:
A) "teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to severe stress.
B) "teachers" actually seemed to enjoy shocking the "learners."
C) "learners" received painful electric shocks even if they had heart problems.
D) experiments were performed despite mass student protests against the research.

A) "teachers" were deceived and frequently subjected to severe stress.

20. The bystander effect refers to the tendency for an observer of an emergency to withhold aid if the:
A) observer has been exposed to many similar emergencies in the past.
B) emergency takes place in a large city.
C) emergency is being observed by a number of other people.
D) observer has just endured a frustrating experience.
E) emergency victim is a member of a different racial group than the observer.

C) emergency is being observed by a number of other people.

21. Kentaro hates to wear ties but wears one to his sister's wedding to avoid his family's disapproval. Kentaro's behavior exemplifies the importance of:
A) normative social influence.
B) the mere exposure effect.
C) social facilitation.
D) the reciprocity norm.
E) informational social influence.

A) normative social influence.

22. Fritz Heider concluded that people tend to attribute others' behavior either to their ________ or to their ________.
A) dispositions; situations
B) heredity; environment
C) abilities; effort
D) cognitions; emotions
E) biological motives; psychological motives

A) dispositions; situations

23. Individuals who believe that the death penalty should be abolished meet to discuss the issue. Research on group interaction suggests that after discussion the individuals will be:
A) convinced that the death penalty should be retained.
B) in favor of a more moderate position on the issue.
C) even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.
D) sharply divided over whether the death penalty should be abolished.

C) even more convinced that the death penalty should be abolished.

24. After Manny's father refused to let him use the family car on Friday night, Manny let all the air out of the tires. His action is best explained in terms of the:
A) frustration-aggression principle.
B) fundamental attribution error.
C) mere exposure effect.
D) foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
E) bystander effect.

A) frustration-aggression principle.

25. Which of the following comments is most likely to be made in a group characterized by groupthink?
A) "We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there's no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue."
B) "Do any of you see any potential problem with our group's position?"
C) "As a group, we have to think carefully about all the pros and cons surrounding this issue."
D) "In order to proceed democratically, we need to know the honest opinions of all group members."

A) "We all seem to be in basic agreement, so there's no sense in continuing our discussion of this issue."

26. Philip Zimbardo devised a simulated prison and randomly assigned college students to serve as prisoners or guards. This experiment best illustrated the impact of:
A) deindividuation on the fundamental attribution error.
B) frustration on aggression.
C) team membership on social loafing.
D) groupthink on social conflict.
E) role-playing on attitudes.

E) role-playing on attitudes.

27. Violent pornographic movies often perpetuate the myth that:
A) women are more likely rape victims than are men.
B) most rapes are never reported to the police.
C) most rapes are commonly committed by victims' dates or acquaintances.
D) many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters.

D) many women enjoy aggressive sexual encounters.

28. Minimal levels of father care are associated with high levels of:
A) social facilitation.
B) conformity.
C) aggression.
D) group polarization.

C) aggression.

29. Political pollsters find that people's attitudes toward the presidential candidates are very accurate predictors of the election outcome. This best illustrates that attitudes guide our actions when the attitude:
A) is specifically relevant to the behavior.
B) is forged through life experiences rather than mere hearsay.
C) is a response to informational social influence.
D) has a strongly emotional component.
E) is closely related to a more general value.

A) is specifically relevant to the behavior.

30. On the basis of what Americans say, in the last half-century, prejudice toward women has ________ and prejudice toward African-Americans has ________.
A) increased; decreased
B) decreased; decreased
C) increased; increased
D) decreased; increased

B) decreased; decreased

31. Most children believe their school is better than the other schools in their town. This best illustrates:
A) the fundamental attribution error.
B) the reciprocity norm.
C) scapegoating.
D) the just-world phenomenon.
E) ingroup bias.

E) ingroup bias.

32. After hearing respected medical authorities lecture about the value of regular exercise, Raul, who has rarely exercised, begins to jog regularly. The change in Raul's behavior best illustrates the impact of:
A) informational social influence.
B) social facilitation.
C) normative social influence.
D) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
E) the mere exposure effect.

A) informational social influence.

33. Sigmund Freud would most likely have suggested that wars result from:
A) human instinct.
B) inequitable relationships.
C) frustration.
D) deindividuation.
E) the fundamental attribution error.

A) human instinct.

34. Carol is restless during class because her professor's distressed facial expressions lead her to believe that he dislikes teaching. The professor, on the other hand, is distressed because he sees Carol's restlessness as an indication that she lacks any motivation to learn. At this point, both student and professor should be informed of the dangers of:
A) the fundamental attribution error.
B) deindividuation.
C) the foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
D) the mere exposure effect.
E) group polarization.

A) the fundamental attribution error.

35. The presence of others does not always lead to social facilitation because:
A) arousal encourages performance of the most likely response.
B) one's focus of attention shifts when playing the role of actor rather than observer.
C) an increasing familiarity with novel stimuli facilitates liking.
D) group discussion enhances whatever attitude is initially dominant in the group.
E) the loss of self-restraint often accompanies arousal and anonymity.

A) arousal encourages performance of the most likely response.

36. Which branch of psychology is most directly concerned with the study of how people think about, influence, and relate to one another?
A) social psychology
B) experimental psychology
C) developmental psychology
D) clinical psychology
E) personality psychology

A) social psychology

37. Which of the following individuals most clearly adheres to a stereotype?
A) Cyril, who never hires people over age 50 to work in his restaurant
B) Vladimir, who is especially attracted to Latin-American women
C) Peter, who feels very uncomfortable interacting with African-Americans
D) Robin, who is convinced that college professors are usually impractical and forgetful

D) Robin, who is convinced that college professors are usually impractical and forgetful

38. The impact of our actions on our attitudes is best illustrated by the:
A) fundamental attribution error.
B) foot-in-the-door phenomenon.
C) mere exposure effect.
D) frustration-aggression principle.
E) bystander effect.

B) foot-in-the-door phenomenon.

39. Fernando's favorable attitude toward capital punishment began to change when he was asked to offer arguments opposing it in a college debate class. His attitude change is best explained by ________ theory.
A) the two-factor
B) equity
C) social exchange
D) cognitive dissonance
E) scapegoat

D) cognitive dissonance

40. Deindividuation refers to:
A) the tendency to overestimate the impact of personal dispositions on another's behavior.
B) a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.
C) lack of critical thinking due to a strong desire for social harmony within a group.
D) the enhancement of a group's prevailing attitudes through group discussion.
E) the failure to give aid in an emergency situation observed by many onlookers.

B) a loss of self-awareness and self-restraint in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity.

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set