Developmental Psychology Exam 2

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Understanding their emotions helps children to do all of the following EXCEPT

control all social situations

According to the text, which of the following is a reason for the difficulty that 3-year-olds have in understanding their own emotions?

They do not recognize that they can experience different emotions at the same time.

The virtue acquired through successful resolution of Erikson's developmental crisis of initiative versus guilt is

purpose

Psychological or behavioral differences between males and females are called

gender differences.

Mike is becoming aware that he is a boy and that boys play with trucks and trains. He is developing a gender

Role

Learning one's gender role is called

gender- typing

Melissa is 4 years old, and now wants to avoid dressing "like a boy." She talks about being "a wife and mommy" when she grows up. Melissa is engaged in the process of

gender typing

Gender stereotypes are

preconceived generalizations about male and female behavior.

. Gender differences are believed to be influenced by

hormones, parents, media

. Play that involves repetitive muscular movements involving gross motor skills is called ______ play

functional

Several children are playing in the same area. Each child plays with blocks in a different way, without any attempt to alter the others' play. They are engaged in which kind of play

Parallel

. A method of molding character, teaching self-control, and encouraging acceptable behavior is called

discipline

If punishment is used, it is best administered

as soon as the unacceptable behavior begins

Ellen has just run across the street against her parents' wishes. Her parents firmly explain to her that she must not do that again because she could get hurt. Ellen's parents are using _______________ as a form of discipline.

inductive techniques

An important goal of parental discipline is to help the child develop self-discipline. The most effective disciplinary strategy to achieve this goal is

induction

When Barbara asks her father why she is not allowed to play in the street, he says, "Because I say so, and if you don't do what I say, you will get a spanking." This illustrates the ______________ style of parenting.

authoritarian

Which of the following describes the behavior of authoritative parents?

They allow children to make judgments about proper behavior.

Tommy Jon knocks over another child while running to the street to see a circus parade. Tommy Jon is displaying

instrumental aggression

Nia's little sister has repeatedly knocked down a tower of blocks Nia has carefully constructed. Finally, Nia teases her little sister until she cries. Nia is displaying

relational aggression

. Fears in early childhood are

likely to eventually disappear.

Which of the following does NOT describe only children

They are better adjusted socially.

The earliest, most frequent, and most intense disputes among siblings are over

Property Rights

10. Understanding their emotions helps children to do all of the following EXCEPT

control all social situations

Physical development during early childhood includes which of the following?

Cartilage turns to bone, and bones become harder.

. Five-year-old Mike has had an exciting evening opening birthday presents. He has just gone to bed 2 hours later than normal and has recently eaten a lot of cake and ice cream. Which of the following problems is Mike at risk for during the night?

nightmares

. Repeated urination in clothing or in bed is called

enuresis

Gross motor coordination allows a child to

jump and hop.

Meagan is learning to jump rope. This involves her learning to use her leg muscles to jump in a rhythmic fashion. In learning to jump properly, Meagan is acquiring a

gross motor skill

The risk of illness, injury, and death in childhood is most strongly related to the family's

SES

Parental smoking increases the likelihood that young children may contract a number of medical problems, including which of the following?

Pneumonia

Environmental health steps to prevent lead poisoning include all of the following EXCEPT

closing school buildings

Ben says, "I need a hammer to fix this," even when there is no hammer present. According to Piaget, Ben has entered the

preoperational stage

The symbolic function allows young children to

refer to mental representations of objects they have seen before.

Miranda and her uncle see an interesting new car drive by. Later, after the car has gone, her uncle asks if she remembers the neat thing they saw minutes before. Miranda says, "Yes, we saw a car." Miranda is demonstrating

symbolic function

When children make an object stand for or represent something else, they are using

pretend play

Marsha watches her mother bathe the new baby. The next morning she gets her doll and a pail of water and bathes her "baby."

deferred imitation

Focusing on only one aspect of a situation and neglecting others is called

centration

Piaget concluded that young children come to illogical conclusions because they cannot _____________ and think about several aspects of a situation at the same time.

decenter

Margaret, who is 4, is upset because her older sister, Leslie, "has more candy." Actually, each girl has one caramel, but Leslie has stretched hers into a long string while Margaret's is still a small cube. This shows Margaret's inability to use

conservation

Prosocial behavior is

motivated by concern for another person.

A child who cannot see something from another person's perspective or point of view is showing

egocentrism.

Alex is listening to some music through headphones so no one else can hear it. When his mother walks into the room, he says, "Mommy, do you like this song?" although she cannot hear the music. Alex's question indicates that Alex is

egocentric.

Recognition memory is

better developed than recall memory in early childhood.

John is shown a group of objects. The objects are then covered, and he is asked to list all that he remembers. This is a test of

recall

Which form of memory produces a script or outline of familiar things?

generic

The ability of young children to retain the meaning of a new word after having heard it used in conversation only once or twice is called

fast mapping

A system of descriptive and evaluative representations about the self is called

self-concept.

The judgment children make about their overall worth is their

self-esteem.

Kendrick thinks he wants to be an engineer but is not sure and is agonizing over the decision. Meanwhile, he is trying to get information about several other careers. According to Marcia, what is his identity status?

moratorium

Danny does not know what he wants to do after high school and does not appear to worry about it. According to Marcia, what is his identity status?

identity diffusion

When teenagers get their sex education from the media they

believe that portrayals rarely showed risks of unprotected sex

eenagers generally get most of their information about sex from

parents, media, friends

Adolescents begin to rely on friends more than parents for their

intimacy and support

Researchers have identified two types of antisocial behavior of adolescents, including

early on-set and late on-set.

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