male: testicles / female: ovaries
pituit/o ; pituitar/o
thyr/o ; thyroid/o
chemical messengers that are secreted by endocrine glands and have specialized functions in regulating the activites of specific cells, organs or both
13 major glands of the endocrine system
one pituitary gland, one pineal gland, one thyroid gland, four parathyroid glands, one thymus, one pancreas (pancreatic islets), two adrenal glands, two gonads
source-adrenal cortex. hormone that aids in regulating the levels of salt and water in the body
adrenal cortex and gonads. hormone that influences sex related characteristics.
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
pituitary gland anterior lobe. hormone that stimulates the growth and secretions of the adrenal cortex. stimulates the adrenal cortex to secrete cortisol
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
secreted by hypothalamus then stored and released from the pituitary gland. hormone that helps control blood pressure by reducing the amount of water that is excreted and promotes the reabsorption of water through the kidney
thyroid gland. hormone that works with the parathyroid hormone to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues. decreases blood levels by moving calcium into storage in the bones and teeth
adrenal cortex. hormone that regulates the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins in the body.. also anti inflamm.
epinephrine (EPI, Epi)
adrenal medulla. hormone that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system
ovaries. hormone that develops and maintains the female secondary sex charac. and regulates the menstrual cycle.
follicle stimulating hormone (FSH)
pituitary gland. hormone that in the female stimulates the secretion of estrogen and the growth of ova. in the male, stimulates the prod. of sperm
pancreatic islets(alpha cells). hormone that increases the level of glucose in the bloodstream
growth hormone (GH)
pituitary gland. a somatotropic hormone that regulates the growth of bone, muscle, and other body tissues. (somat/o-body, -tropic=having an affinity for)
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
placenta. hormone that stimulates the secretions of the hormones required to maintain pregnancy
pancreatic islets(beta cells). hormone that regulates the transport of glucose to body cells and stimulatesthe conversion of excess glucose to glycogen for storage
interstitial cell-stimulating hormone (ICSH)
pituitary gland. hormone that stimulates ovulation in the female. stimulates the secretion of testosterone in the male
lactogenic hormone (LTH) aka prolactin
hormone that stimulates and maintains the secretion of breast milk.
lutenizing hormone (LH)
pituitary gland. hormone that in the female, stimulates ovulation and the production of progesterone. in the male, testosterone secretion
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)
pituitary gland. hormone that increases the prod of melanin in melanocytes of the skin
pineal gland. hormone that influences the sleep-wakefulness portions of the circadian cycles
adrenal medulla. hormone that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system
pituitary gland. hormone that stimulates uterine contractions during childbirth. it also causes milk to flow from the mammary glands after childbirth. pitocin is a synthetic form that is used to induce labor. (oxy-swift, -tocin=labor)
parathyroid hormone (PTH)
parathyroid glands. hormone that works with calcitonin to regulate calcium levels in the blood and tissues
ovaries. hormone that completes preparation of the uterus for possible pregnancy
testicles. hormone that stimulates the development of male secondary sex charac.
thymus. hormone that plays an important role in the immune system
thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3)
thyroid gland. hormones that regulate the rate of metabolism. the secretion of these hormones is controlled by the thyroid-stimulating hormone prod. by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland
thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
pituitary gland. hormone that stimulates the secretion of hormones by the thyroid gland
any one of a number of hormone-like substances secreted by endocrine glands or artificially prod as medications to relieve swelling and inflamm in conditions such as asthma
chemically similar to testosterone. used by atheletes to gain muscle mass and strength. side effects include: liver damamge. altered body chem, testicular shrinkage, and breast development in males, unpredictable mood swings and violence.
secreted by adipocytes. travels to brain centers to help control food intake and energy expenditure. it also affects female reproduction, immune function, function of many other hormones including insulin.
secreted by sepcialized cells in the brain. they are able to affect cells throughout distant parts of the body.
physician who specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases and malfunctions of the endocrine glands. (endocrin-secrete within; -ologist=specialist)
any disease caused by a disorder of the endocrine system. (endo-within, crin/o-secrete, -pathy=disease)
a condition due to excessive secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland. (hyper-excessive, crin-secrete, -ism=condition)
a condition caused by deficient secretion of any gland, especially an endocrine gland. (hypo- deficient, crin-secrete, -ism=condition)
pea-sized gland composed of anterior and posterior lobes, hangs from the infundibulum below the hypothalamus, which is part of the brain. it secretes hormones that control the activity of other endocrine glands. it acts in response to stimuli from the hypothalamus.
stalk-like structure that hangs below the hypothalamus
abn enlargment ot the extremities (hands/feet) that is caused by excessive secretion of growth hormone AFTER puberty. (acr/o-extremities, -megaly=abn enlargment)
gigantism aka giantism
abn overgrowth of the entire body that is caused by excessive secretion of the growth hormone BEFORE puberty
pathology resulting in the excessive secretion by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (hyper-excessive, pituitar-pituitary, -ism=condition)
a condition of reduced secretion due to the partial, or complete, loss of the function of the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland. (hypo-deficient, pituitar-pituitary, -ism= condition)
any disorder of pituitary function. (pituitar-pituitary, -ism=condition)
pituitary adenoma aka pituitary tumor
a slow growing, benign tumor of the pituitary gland. the two types of these tumors are functioning and nonfunctioning pituitary tumors.
functioning pituitary tumor
a type of pituitary adenoma that often produces hormones in large and unregulated amounts
nonfunctioning pituitary tumor
a type of pituitary adenoma that does not produce significant amounts of hormones
prolactinoma aka prolactin-producing adenoma.
a benign tumor of the pituitary gland that causes it to produce too much proclactin. in females the overprod causes infertility and changes menstration. in males, it causes impotence.
caused by insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone or by the inability of the kidneys to respond approp. to this hormone. to little ADH causes extreme polydipsia (excessive thirst) and polyuria (excessive urination) and can lead to dehydration.
human growth hormone (HGH) aka recombinant GH.
a synthetic version of the growth hormone that is administered to stimulate growth when the natural supply of growth hormone is insuffcient for normal growth
pineal gland aka pineal body
very small endocrine gland that is located in the central portion of the brain and influences the sleep-wakefulness cycle.
refers to the biological functions that occurs within a 24 hour period
a tumor of the pineal gland that can disrupt the prod of melatonin. can also cause insomnia by disrupting the circadian cycle. (pineal-pineal gland, -oma=tumor)
the surgical removal of the pineal gland. (pineal- pineal gland, -ectomy= surgical removal)
butterfly shaped gland that lies on either side of the larynx just below the thyroid cartilage. regulates the body's metabolism, thyroid secretions also influence the growth and the functioning of the nervous system
hashimoto's thyroiditis aka chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis
an auto immune disease in which the body's own antibodies attack and destry the cells of the thyroid gland
hypothyroidism aka underactive thyroid
caused by a deficiency of thyroid secretion and symptoms include fatigue, depression, sensitivity to cold, and a decreased metabolic rate.
a congenital form of hypothyroidism. if treatment is not started soon after birth, cretinism causes arrested physical and mental development
myxedema aka adult hypothyroidism
caused by extreme deficiency of thyroid secretion. symptoms include: swelling, particulary around the eyes and cheeks, fatigue and subnormal temperatures.
hyperthyroidism aka thyrotoxicosis
an imbalance of metabolism caused by the overproduction of thyroid hormones. symptoms includ: increased metabolic rate, sweating, nervousness, and weight loss. (hyper-excessive, thyroid-thyroid, -ism= condition)
thyroid storm aka thyrotoxic crisis
a relatively rare, life-threatening condition caused by exaggerated hyperthyroidism. symptoms include: fever, chest pain, palpitations, shortness of breath, tremors, increased sweating, disorientation, and fatigue.
an autoimmune disorder that is caused by hyperthyroidism, is charac. by goiter and/or exophthalmos
goiter aka thyromegaly
abn nonmalignant enlargment of the thyroid gland. it produces a swelling in the front of the neck. usu. occurs when the thyroid gland is not able to produce enough thyroid hormone to meet the body's needs. (thyr/o-thyroid, -megaly=abn enlargement)
an abn protrusion of the eyeball out of the orbit
thyroid-stimulating hormone assay
a diagnostic test to measure the circulating blood level of thyroid-stimulating hormone. it detects abn thyroid activity by detecting excessive pituitary stimulation.
type of nuclear medicine that measures thyroid function
medication administered to slow the ability of the thyroid gland to produce thyroid hormones.
chemical thyroidectomy aka redioactive iodine therapy
the administration of radioactive iodine to destroy thyroid cells--disables at least part of the thyroid gland and is used to treat chronic hyperthyroid disorders -- grave's disease.
the surgical removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland.
synthetic thyroid hormones
administered to replace lost thyroid function.
about the size of a grain of rie, are embeddedin the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. primarily regulates calcium levels throughout the body--which is important to the function of the nervous system
works with the hormone calcitonin that is secreted by the thyroid gland. it increases calcium levels in the blood by mobilizing the release of calcium from storage in the bones nd teeth.
overproduction of the parathyroid hormone--causes the condition known as hypercalcemia. PRIMARY PARATHYROIDISM is due to a disorder of the parathyroid. SECONDARY PARATHYROID is due to a disorder elsewhere in the body. (hyper-excessive, parathyroid-parathyroid, -ism=condition)
charac by abn HIGH concentrations of calcium circulating in the blood instead of being stored in the bones. (hyper-excessive, calc-calcium, -emia=blood condition)
charac by abn low levels of calcium in the blood. (hypo-deficient, calc-calcium, -emia= blood condition)
the overproduction of the parathyroid hormone --causes hypercalcemia that can lead to weakend bones and kidney stones. (hyper-excessive, parathyroid-parathyroid, -ism= condition)
a complication of hyperparathyroidism in which bone becomes softened and deformed, and may develop cysts (can be caused by overproduction of parathyroid hormone or pararthyroid cancer.
caused by insufficient or absent secretion of the parathyroid hormone. causes hypocalcemia and in severe cases it leads to tetany. (hypo-excessive, parathyroid-parathyroid, -ism=condition.)
the condition of periodic, painful muscle spasms and tremors.
the surgical removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands--controls hyperparathyroidism.
located near the midline in the anterior portion of the thoracic cavity. it is posterior to the sternum and slightly superior to the heart.
secreted by the thymus. stimulates the maturation of lymphocytes into T cells of the immine system. these mature cells are important in coordinating immune defences.
inflamm of the thymus gland. (thym-thymus, -itis=inflamm)
the surgical removal of the thymus gland (thym-thymus, -ectomy=surgical removal)
a feather shaped organ located posterior to the stomach that functions as part of both the digestive and the endocrine systems.
the parts of the pancrease that have endocrine funtions. they control blood sugar levels and glucose metabolism throughout the body.
glucose aka blood sugar
the basic form of energy used by the body
the form in which the liver stores the excess glucose.
secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreatic islets in response to low blood sugar levels. it increases the glucose levels by stimulating the liver to convert glycogen into glucose.
secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets in response to high blood sugar levels. first, it allows flucose to enter the cells for use as energy. when additional glucose is NOT needed, insulin stimulates the liver to convert glucose into glycogen for storage.
a benign tumor of the pancrease that causes hypoglycemia by secreting additional insulin. (insulin-insulin, -oma=tumor)
a pain in the pancreas. (panceat- pancreas, -algia=pain)
an inflammation of the pancreas. long term alcohol abuse is a leading cause. (pancreat- pancrease, -itis= inflamm)
surgical removal of all or part of the pancreas. a total pancreatectomy is used to treat pancreatic cancer and this procedure invloves the spleen, gallbladder, common bile duct, a nd portions of the small intestine and stomach.
an abnormally high concentration of glucose in the blood. is seen primarily in patients with diabetes mellitus. (hyper- excessive, glyc- sugar, -emia=blood condition)
excessive thirst (poly-many, -dipsia=thirst)
excessive hunger. (poly-many, -phagia= eating)
exxcessive urination. (poly-many, -uria= urination)
the condition of excessive secretion of insulin in the bloodstream. hyperinsulinism can cause hypoglycemia. (hyper- excessive, insulin-insulin, -ism=condition)
abn low concentration of glucose in the blood. symptoms include: nervousness, shakiness, confusion, perspiration, or feeling anxious or weak. (hypo- deficient, glyc-sugar, -emia= blood condition.)
group of metabolic disorders charac by hyperglycemia resulting from defects in insulin secretion. insulin action or both. described as type 1 or 2.
type 1 diabetes
an autoimmune insulin deficiency disorder caused by the destruction of pancreatic islet beta cells. symptoms include: polydipsia, polyphagia, polyuria, weight loss, blurred vision, extreme fatigue and slow healing. it is treated with diet and exercise and carefully regulated insulin replacement therapy.
means that the pancreatic beat cells do not secete enough insulin
type 2 diabetes
an insulin resistant disorder. this means that insulin is being produced but the body does not use it effectively. in an attempt to compensate for this lack of response, the body secretes more insulin. increasingly common in children and young adults. obese adults are at high risk. symptoms: those of type 1 and recurring infections, irritability and tingling sensations in the hands or feet.
a condition in which the blood sugar level is higher than normal but not enough to be classified as type 2 diabetes. indicates increased risk of type 2, heart disease and stroke.
lower blood sugar by causing the body to release more insulin
glucophage (metaformin hydrochloride)
work within the cells to combat insulin resistance and to help insulin let blood sugar into the cells.
a form of diabetes mellitus that occurs during some pregnancies. usually disappears after delivery but many of these women later develop type 2 diabetes.
fasting blood sugar test
measures the glucose (blood sugar) levels after the patient has not eaten for 8-12 hours. this test is used to screen for diabetes and to monitor treatment of this condition.
oral glucose tolerance test
performed to confirm a diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and to aid in diagnosing hypoglycemia.
home blood glucose monitoring
measures the current blood sugar level--this test requires a drop of blood.
measures average glucose levels over the past 3 weeks. the test is able to detect changes more rapidly than the HcA1c test.
Hemoglobin A1c testing aka HbA1c
a blood test that measures the average blood glucosee level over the previous 3-4 months.
caused by very low blood sugar (hypoglycemia). treatment: oral glucose is a sugary substance that can quickly be absorbed into the bloodstream and will rapidly raise the blood sugar level.
diabetic coma aka diabetic ketoacidosis
caused by very high blood sugar (hyperglycemia). treated by: prompt administration of insulin.
symptoms of insulin shock:
headache, face pale, shallow or rapid respiration, normal blood pressure, full and pounding pulse, skin moist-excessive perspiration, lack of coordination, trembling, excited, nervous, dizziness, confusion, irritablem inapprop. responses.
symptoms of diabetic coma
appears in stupor or coma, face flushed, fruity breath , tongue dry, labored prolonged respirations, blood pressure low, weak rapid pulse, skin dry
occurs when dabetes damages the tiny blood vessels in the retina, causing blood to leak into the posterior sement of the eyeball. can cause loss of vision.
occurs whern excess blood sugar makes the walls of the blood vessels sticky and rigid--encouraging hypertension and atherosclerosis
can lead to renal failure because of damage to the blood vessels reduces blood flow through the kidneys
damage to the nerves affecting the hands and feet
adrenal glands aka suprarenals
control the electrolyte levels in the body, help regulate metabolism and interact with the sympathetic nervous system. located one on top of each kidney. consist of an outer portion (adrenal cortex) and the middle portion (adrenal medulla) the enitre gland is surrounded by the adrenal capsule.
mineral substances (sodium and potassium) that are normally found in the blood.
steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex --same word for synthetic hormones
regulates the salt and water levels in the body by increasing sodium re-absorption and potassium excretion by the kidneys (reabsorption.. return to bloodstream)
are hormones that influence sex related charac. normally in adults, the production of androgens in the adrenal cortex is minimal; instead, these hormones are prod in the male/female gonads.
cortisol aka hydrocortisone
has anti-inflamm action, and it regulates the metabolism of carbs, fats, and proteins in the body.
epinephrine aka adrenaline
stimulates the sympathetic nervous system in response to stress or other stimuli. it makes the heart beat faster and can raise blood pressure, it helps the liver release glucose and limits the release of insulin.
both hormone and neurohormone.it is released as a neurohormone by the symp. nervous system and as a hormone by the adrenal medulla. raises blood pressure, strengthens the heartbeat and stimulates muscle contraction during flight or fight
occurs when the adrenal glands do not produce enough of the hormones cortisol or aldosterone. it is charac by chronic worsening fatigue and muscle weakness, loss of appetite and weight loss.
inflamm of the adrenal glands. (adrenal- adrenal glands, -itis= inflamm.)
an abnormality of electrolyte balance caused by the excessice secretion of aldosterone
a disorder of the adrenal glands due to excessive production of aldosterone.
a benign tumor of the adrenal medulla that causes the gland to produce excess epinephrine. (phe/o-dusky, chrom/o-color, cyt-cell, -oma= tumor)
cushing's syndrome aka hypercortisolism
caused by prolonged exposure to high levels of cortisol. symptoms: rounded face (moon face). can be caused by overproduction of cortisol by the body or by taking glucocorticoid hormone medications to treat inflamm diseases such as asthma and rheumatoid arth.
a minimally invasive procedure to surgically remove one or both adrenal glands. (adrenal-adrenal gland, -ectomy= surgical removal)
coritsone aka hydrocortisone
the synthetic equivalent of corticosteroids prod by the body. cortisone is administered to suppress inflamm and as an immunosuppressant
a synthetic hormone used as a vasoconstrictor to treat conditions such as heart dysrhythmias and asthma attacks.
causes the blood vessels to contract
ovaries in females; testicles in males. are gamete-producing glands. they secrete the hormones that are respons. for the development and maint of the secondary sex charac. that develop during puberty
a reproductive cell. sperm in male and ova (egg) in the female
any hormone that stimulates the gonads. (gonad/o- gonad, -tropin=stimulate)
the condition of first being capable of reproducing sexually. marked by maturing of the genital organs, develop of secondary sex charac. and by the first occurance of menstration in the female. ave age is 12 in females and 14 in male.
the early onset of the changes of puberty. this is before 9 in females and 10 in males.
secreted by testicles, stimulates the development of male secondary sex charac.
having the nature, properties, or qualities of an adult male.
important in the development and maintenance of the female secondary sex charac and in regulation of the menstrual cycle.
the hormone released during the second half of the menstrual cycle by the corpus luteum in the ovary. its function is to complete the preparations for pregnancy. if preg occurs, the placenta takes over the prod of progesterone. if preg does NOT occur, secretion of the hormone stops and is followed by the menstrual cycle.
human chorionic gonadotropin
secreted by placenta during preg to stimulate the corpus luteum to continue producing the hormones required to maintain the preg. also stimulates the hormones required to stimulate lactation after childbirth.
condition of excessive secretion of hormones by the sex glands. (hyper-excessive, gonad-sex gland, -ism=condition)
the condition of deficient secretion of hormones by the sex glands. (hypo- deficient, gonad- sex gland, -ism= condition)
the condition of excessive mammary development in the male. (gynec/o-female, mast-breast, -ia=abn condition)
DI-, DM-, DR, DRP-
-diabetes insipidus, -duabetes mellitus, -diabetic retinopathy
FBS-, FA-, GD-
-fassting blood sugar, -fructosamine test, -grave's disease
HG-, LEP, LPT-, PC, PCC, Pheo-
-hypoglycemia, -leptin, -pheochromocytoma
extremities (hands and feet), top, extreme point
sex gland, gonad
thymus gland, soul
condition, state of