Chapter 3

Created by alondra_ramirez 

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The nucleolus ________.

A) is a dark-staining spherical body found within the mitochondria
B) is the site of ribosome assembly in a cell
C) is the site of lipid production in a cell
D is the primary site of protein synthesis

B) is the site of ribosome assembly in a cell

Which of the following describes the plasma membrane?
A) a double layer of protein enclosing the plasma
B) a single-layered membrane that surrounds the nucleus of the cell
C) a membrane composed of tiny shelves or cristae
D) the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell

D) the phospholipid bilayer surrounding the cell

There is only one cell type in the human body that has a flagellum.
T/F

True

Which of the following is NOT a concept of the cell theory?

A) A cell is the basic structural and functional unit of living organisms.
B) Cells are given life through a process known as spontaneous generation.
C) The biochemical activities of cells are dictated by the relative number of their specific subcellular structures.
D)The activity of an organism depends on both the individual and the collective activities of its cells.

B) Cells are given life through a process known as spontaneous generation.

DNA transcription is another word for DNA replication.
T/F

False

Which of the following statements correctly describes the plasma membrane?

A) It is a flexible protein barrier supported by cholesterol rods.
B) It is a dynamic fluid structure that is in constant flux.
C)It is a unique, solid barrier custom designed for each type of cell.
D) It is a solid structure formed by phospholipids and cholesterol designed to be stable against pressure.

B) It is a dynamic fluid structure that is in constant flux.

Interstitial fluid represents one type of extracellular material.
T/F

True

Apoptosis is programmed cell suicide; cancer cells do not undergo this process.
T/F

True

Lysosomes perform digestive functions within a cell.
T/F

True

What is the difference between active and passive transport across the plasma membrane?
A) Active transport is ATP dependent, whereas passive transport uses only the kinetic energy of the particles for movement across the plasma membrane.
B) Active transport is used to move substances down their concentration gradient, whereas passive transport is used to move substances against their concentration gradient.
C) Active transport means that the cell is actively going after substances that it wants to bring into the cell, whereas passive transport means that the cell just waits for the substance to cross the membrane.
D) Active transport implies that the cell is working with other cells, whereas passive transport implies that the cell does not cooperate with other cells.

A) Active transport is ATP dependent, whereas passive transport uses only the kinetic energy of the particles for movement across the plasma membrane.

The orderly sequence of the phases of mitosis is prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase.
T/F

True

Phagocytosis is a form of exocytosis.
T/F

False

Which of the following is a function of a plasma membrane protein?
A) molecular transport through the membrane
B) forms a lipid bilayer
C) circulating antibody
D) oxygen transport

A) molecular transport through the membrane

Cholesterol helps to stabilize the cell membrane while decreasing the mobility of the phospholipids.
T/F

True

Which organelle is responsible for synthesizing proteins?
A)Golgi apparatus
B) smooth endoplasmic reticulum
C) mitochondria
D) ribosomes

D) ribosomes

Which of the following is a principle of the fluid mosaic model of cell membrane structure?
A) Phospholipids consist of a polar head and a nonpolar tail made of three fatty acid chains.
B) Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules.
C)All proteins associated with the cell membrane are contained in a fluid layer on the outside of the cell.
D) The lipid bilayer is a solid at body temperature, thus protecting the cell.

B) Phospholipids form a bilayer that is largely impermeable to water-soluble molecules.

Crenation (shrinking) is likely to occur in blood cells immersed in ________.
A)blood plasma
B) a hypertonic solution
C) an isotonic solution
D) a hypotonic solution

B) a hypertonic solution

Solutions with a higher concentration of solutes than the concentration inside the cells are __________.
A) hypoosmotic
B) hypertonic
C) isotonic
D) hypotonic

B) hypertonic

Which vesicular transport process occurs primarily in some white blood cells and macrophages?

A) exocytosis
B) pinocytosis
C) phagocytosis
D) intracellular vesicular trafficking

C) phagocytosis

Diffusion is a form of active transport.
T/F

False

Passive membrane transport processes include ________.
A) consumption of ATP
B) movement of water from an area of high solute concentration to an area of low concentration
C) the use of transport proteins when moving substances from areas of low to high concentration
D) movement of a substance down its concentration gradient

D) movement of a substance down its concentration gradient

During interphase of the cell life cycle, the parent cell divides into two daughter cells.
T/F

False

Which structures are fingerlike projections that greatly increase the absorbing surface of cells?
A) microvilli
B) primary cilia
C) flagella
D) stereocilia

A) microvilli

Each daughter cell resulting from mitotic cell division has exactly as many chromosomes as the parent cell.
T/F

True

Once solid material is phagocytized and taken into a vacuole, which of the following statements best describes what happens?
A) A ribosome enters the vacuole and uses the amino acids in the "invader" to form new protein.
B) A lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material.
C) The vacuole remains separated from the cytoplasm and the solid material persists unchanged.
D) The phagocytized material is stored until further breakdown can occur..

B) A lysosome combines with the vacuole and digests the enclosed solid material.

During DNA replication, the covalent bonding of nucleotides into a new strand of DNA is performed by ________.
A) primase
B) DNA ligase
C) RNA polymerase
D) DNA polymerase

D) DNA polymerase

________ is the diffusion of a solvent, such as water, across a selectively permeable membrane.

A) Facilitated diffusion
B) Unassisted diffusion
C) Simple diffusion
D) Osmosis

D) Osmosis

Which cell component helps to maintain the structural integrity of the cell?
A) centriole
B) ribosome
C) cytoskeleton
D) peroxisome

C) cytoskeleton

Peroxisomes ________.

A) sometimes function as secretory vesicles
B) function to digest particles ingested by endocytosis
C) are also called microbodies, and contain acid hydrolases
D) are able to detoxify substances by enzymatic action

D) are able to detoxify substances by enzymatic action

In which stage of mitosis do the identical sets of chromosomes uncoil and resume their chromatin form?
A) anaphase
B) prophase
C) metaphase
D) telophase

D) telophase

Which of the following is characteristic of cilia?

A) They are used for cellular adhesion.
B) They move substances in any direction across cell surfaces.
C) They are substantially longer than flagella, and are most easily seen in human sperm cells.
D) They are whiplike, motile cellular extensions that occur in large numbers on the exposed surfaces of certain cells.

D) They are whiplike, motile cellular extensions that occur in large numbers on the exposed surfaces of certain cells.

Mitochondria ________.
A) synthesize proteins for use outside the cell
B) contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function
C) are always the same shape
D) are single-membrane structures involved in the breakdown of ATP

B) contain some of the DNA and RNA code necessary for their own function

Some hormones enter cells via ________.
A) primary active transport
B) exocytosis
C) pinocytosis
D) receptor-mediated endocytosis

D) receptor-mediated endocytosis

Which cell organelle provides the majority of the ATP needed by the cell to carry out its metabolic reactions?
A) Golgi apparatus
B) mitochondrion
C) lysosome
D) ribosome

B) mitochondrion

________ is a molecular "ferry" that brings amino acids to the ribosome to build a protein.
A) DNA
B) mRNA
C) rRNA
D) t-RNA

D) t-RNA

Which of the following statements is most correct regarding the intracellular chemical signals known as "second messengers"?
A) Second messengers act through receptors called K-proteins.
B) Cyclic AMP and calcium may be second messengers.
C) Second messengers usually act to remove nitric oxide (NO) from the cell.
D) Second messengers usually inactivate protein kinase enzymes.

B) Cyclic AMP and calcium may be second messengers.

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