Apologia Biology Vocabulary - Module 7: Cellular Reproduction and DNA (2nd edition)

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Vocabulary from Module 7, from Apologia's High School Biology Course Exploring Creation With Biology, by Dr. Jay Wile and Marilyn F. Durnell (2nd edition). There is also a crossword puzzle with these vocabulary words at e-learninglinks.com.

Genetics

The science that studies how characteristics get passed from parent to offspring

Genetic factors

The general guidelines of traits determined by a person's DNA

Environmental factors

Those "nonbiological" factors that are involved in a person's surroundings such as the nature of the person's parents, the person's friends, and the person's behavioral choices

Spiritual factors

The factors in a person's life that are determined by the quality of his or her relationship with God

Gene

A section of DNA that codes for the production of a protein or a portion of protein, thereby causing a trait

Messenger RNA

The RNA that performs transcription

Anticodon

A three-nucleotide base sequence on tRNA

Codon

A sequence of three nucleotide bases on mRNA that refers to a specific type of amino acid

Chromosome

DNA coiled around and supported by proteins, found in the nucleus of the cell

Mitosis

A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells

Interphase

The time interval between cellular reproduction

Centromere

The region that joins two sister chromatids

Mother cell

A cell ready to begin reproduction, containing duplicated DNA and centrioles

Karyotype

The figure produced when the chromosomes of a species during metaphase are arranged according to their homologous pairs

Diploid cell

A cell with chromosomes that come in homologous pairs

Haploid cell

A cell that has only one representative of each chromosome pair

Diploid number (2n)

The total number of chromosomes in a diploid cell

Haploid number (n)

The number of homologous pairs in a diploid cell

Meiosis

The process by which a diploid (2n) cell forms gametes (n)

Gametes

Haploid cells (n) produced by diploid cells (2n) for the purpose of sexual reproduction

Virus

A non-cellular infectious agent that has two characteristics: It has genetic material (RNA or DNA) inside a protective protein coat, and it cannot reproduce on its own.

Antibodies

Specialized proteins that aid in destroying infectious agents

Vaccine

A weakened or inactive version of a pathogen that stimulates the body's production of antibodies which can aid in destroying the pathogen

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