thinking, refers to the mental activity associated with processing, understanding, and communicating information
a mental grouping similar objects, events, or people
the best example of a particular category
a methodical, logical procedure that, while sometimes slow, guarantees success
any problem-solving strategy based on rules of thumb
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem
an obstacle to problem solving in which people tend to search for information that validates their preconceptions
an inability to approach a problem in a new way
refers to the tendency to continue applying a particular problem-solving strategy even when it is no longer helpful
a type of fixation in which a person can think of things only in terms of their usual functions
the tendency to judge the likelihood of things in terms of how well they conform to one's prototypes
based on estimating the probability of certain events in terms of how readily they come to mind
refers to the tendency to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
refers to the way an issue or question is posed. It can affect people's perception of the issue or answer to the question
the tendency for a person's preexisting beliefs to distort his or her logical reasoning
the tendency for people to cling to a particular belief even after the information that led to the formation of the belief is discredited
refers to spoken, written, or gestured words and how we combine them to communicate meaning
the smallest units of sounds in a language that are distinctive for speakers of the language
the smallest units of language that convey meaning
a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
the aspect of grammar that specifies the rules used to derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences
the aspect of grammar specifying the rules for combining words into grammatical sentences
stage of speech development, which begins at 3 to 4 months, is characterized by the spontaneous utterance of speech sounds.
between 1 and 2 years of age children speak mostly in single words
beginning about age 2, children speak mostly in two-word sentences
mental pictures we create in our minds of the outside world.
stages in how we learn language. Stages include babbling, holophrastic, and telegraphic speech. Researchers disagree regarding whether language acquisition is governed more by nature or nurture.
overgeneralization or overregularization
misapplication of grammar rules. Occur during language acquisition. Example: "Marky hitted my head so I throwed the truck at him."
Language acquisition device
The ability to learn a language as children (this is also called the Nativist Theory of Language Acquisition). Noam Chomsky theorized that humans are born with this device.
Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis
Benjamin Whorf theorized that the language we use might control, and in some ways limit, our thinking. Many studies demonstrate the effect of labeling on how we think about people, objects, or ideas, but few studies show that the language we speak drastically changes what we can think about.