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Algae systematics

Polyphyletic

Algae energy obtained from

Photosynthesis (exhibit some degree of heterotrophy)

Algae habitat

Aquatic

Algae cellular complexity

Mostly eukaryotic

Algae prokaryotic example

Cyanobacteria

Algae morphology range

Wide

Algae primary production precent

50-75 precent

Algae ecology

Phytoplankton, periphyton, terrestrial

Euglenophyta time

Silurian

Euglenophyta spp

900

Euglenophyta environment

Mostly freshwater

Euglenophyta fossil record quality

Sparce

Euglenophyta fraction without pigments

2/3

Euglenophyta fraction with pigments

1/3

Euglenophyta pigment types

Chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids

Euglenophyta number of flagella

2

Euglenophyta flagella types

Emergent or reduced, equal or unequal

Euglenophyta cell wall

No cell wall

Euglenophyta proteinaceous strips

Made of Fe or Mn

Euglenophyta eye spot

Present

Euglenophyta vacuole type

Contractile

Euglenophyta sexual reproduction

Unknown

Rhodophyta common name

Red algae

Rhodophyta time

Late Precambrian (1.25 bya)

Rhodophyta fossil record quality

Excellent (CaCO3)

Rhodophyta spp

4000-6000

Rhodophyta environment

Primarily marine (tropical), some freshwater

Rhodophyta extreme enviroments

Hot, acidic springs

Rhodophyta storage

Floridean starch (glycogen)

Rhodophyta motile stage

No motile stage

Rhodophyta resistant stage

No resistant stage

Rhodophyta cell wall composition

Cellulose, CaCO3

Rhodophyta important connections

Pit connections

Rhodophyta cellularity

Mostly multicellular

Rhodophyta asexual reproduction

Monospores

Rhodophyta sexual reproduction

Complicated, some gametic life cycle, mostly triphasic life cycle

Rhodophyta sexual reproduction stages

Gametophyte (n), carposporophyte and tertrasporophyte (2n)

Rhodophyta economic importance

Porphyra (genus, Nori), agar, carrageenan

Dinophyta formerly

Pyrophyta, fire algae

Dinophyta fossil record

Precambrian, Silurian

Dinophyta alveolates

Share a system of sacs underneath their cell membranes (alveoli)

Dinophyta alveolates relationships

Closely related to Foraminifera, Ciliata, and Apicomplexa

Dinophyta spp

2000-4000

Dinophyta environment

Mostly marine, some freshwater

Dinophyta pigments

Either none or chlorophyll a, c, and carotenoids

Dinophyta storage

Starch

Dinophyta flagella

Either none or 2 dissimilar

Dinophyta complexity

Unicellular

Dinophyta cellulose plates

Aid in flotation, theca

Dinophyta reproduction

Asexual

Dinophyta life cycles

Bizarre, often in excess of 18 stages, resting cyst is hystrichosphere

Dinophyta symbiotic relationships

Reefs

Dinophyta red tides neurotoxins

Saxitoxin, brevitoxin

Dinophyta red tides

Summer, eutrophication, bloom of dinoflagellates, density is 20 million per liter

Heterokontophyta flagella

Different

Heterokontophyta flagella characteristics

Long, distinctive hairs; short, smooth whiplash

Heterokontophyta 4 groups types

1 heterotrophic, 3 photosynthetic

Oomycota common name

Water molds

Oomycota fossil record quality

Sparse

Oomycota time

Cretaceous

Oomycota origin

Fungus-like heterokonts diverged early = primitive

Oomycota spp

700

Oomycota enviroments

Marine, freshwater, terrestrial (water required)

Oomycota storage

Glycogen

Oomycota cell wall

Cellulose

Oomycota flagella

Heterokont, zoospores (asexual), male gametes

Oomycota somatic vegetative body (2n)

Mycelium, aseptate

Oomycota asexual reproduction

Zoosporangium (2n) and zoospore (2n, encysted)

Oomycota gamete type

Oogamous

Oomycota life cycle

Gametic life cycle

Oomycota female gametangium

Oogonium

Oomycota male structure

Antheridium

Bacillariophyta common name

Diatoms

Bacillariophyta time

Cretaceous

Bacillariophyta spp

100000 - 250000

Bacillariophyta distribution

Cosmopolitan

Bacillariophyta pigments

None or chlorophyll a, c, carotenoids (fucoxanthin)

Bacillariophyta storage

Chrysolamarin

Bacillariophyta flagella

Heterokont

Bacillariophyta flagella gamete

Male

Bacillariophyta cell wall

Silica

Bacillariophyta cell wall structure

2 overlapping valves, collectively called frustule, decorated

Bacillariophyta morphology

Unicellular or colonial

Bacillariophyta pennates

Bilateral symmetry, unique motility

Bacillariophyta centrics

Radial symmetry, phytoplankton

Bacillariophyta dominant reproduction type

Asexual

Bacillariophyta sexual reproduction

Initiated by sperm or auxospore (resistant stage)

Bacillariophyta auxospore

Resistant stage

Bacillariophyta life cycle

Gametic life cycle

Chrysophyta common name

Golden algae

Chrysophyta time

Cretaceous

Chrysophyta spp

1000

Chrysophyta pigments

None or chlorophyll a, c, carotenoids (fucoxanthine)

Chrysophyta energy type

Heterotrophic, ingest bacteria

Chrysophyta storage

Chrysolamararin

Chrysophyta cell wall

None or silica scales

Chrysophyta morphology

Unicellular or colonies

Chrysophyta asexual reproduction

Prevalent; zoospores

Chrysophyta sexual reproduction

Only in a few species

Chrysophyta resting cycts

Sexual or asexual, silica

Chrysophyta brown tides

Marine, toxic

Phaeophyta common name

Brown algae

Phaeophyta time

Ordovician

Phaeophyta spp

1500

Phaeophyta environment

Mostly marine, temperate, boreal, polar waters

Phaeophyta pigments

None or chlorophyll a, c, and carotenoids (fucoxanthin)

Phaeophyta storage

Laminarin and manitol

Phaeophyta cell wall

Cellulose with mucilaginous algin

Phaeophyta morphology

Large, multicellular organisms with high level of differenciation; holdfast, stipe, air bladders, sieve tubes

Phaeophyta life history

Must have had a sporic life cycle, alternation of generations, few have gametic life cycle

Phaeophyta economic importance

Kelps, algin, alginates

Chlorophyta common name

Green algae

Chlorophyta systematics

Paraphyletic

Chlorophyta time

Cambrian

Chlorophyta spp

17000

Chlorophyta environment

Marine, freshwater, terrestrial

Chlorophyta relationships

Closest to land plants

Chlorophyta synapomorphies with plants

Pigments, storage, cellulose cell wall, flagella ultrastructure

Chlorophyta pigments

Chlorophyll a, b, carotenoids

Chlorophyta thylakoids

Stacked

Chlorophyta storage

Starch inside plastids

Chlorophyta 3 classes

Chlorophyceae, ulvophyceae, and charophyceae

Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae cytokinesis

Phycoplast

Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae environment

Mostly freshwater

Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae morphology

Unicellular and colonial

Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae reproduction

Asexual

Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae life cycle

Zygotic life cycle

Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae dominant stage

Haploid

Chlorophyta Chlorophyceae characteristic

Eyespot, zygospore

Chlorophyta Ulvophyceae environment

Mostly marine

Chlorophyta Ulvophyceae reproduction

Only asexual

Chlorophyta Charophyceae environment

Freshwater

Chlorophyta Charophyceae relationship

Closest to plants (basal appendage)

Chlorophyta Charophyceae synapomorphies with plants

Asymmetric flagella, phargmoplasts, breakdown of nuclear envelope, sporopollenin

Chlorophyta Charophyceae morphology

Unicellular, colonies, filamentous, parenchamous

Chlorophyta Charophyceae sexual reproduction

Conjunction tubes

Chlorophyta Charophyceae life cycle

Zygotic life cycle (not same as plants, haploid thallus)

Chlorophyta Charophyceae reproduction

Sexual

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