Med/Surg. Ch. 23 - Nursing Care of Patients with Valvular, Inflammatory, and Infectious Cardiac or Venous Disorders

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annuloplasty

repair of a cardiac valve

beta-hemolytic streptococci

gram-positive bacteria that, when grown on blood-agar plates, completely hemolyze the blood and produce a clear zone around the bacteria colony. Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci cause disease in humans.

cardiac tamponade

mechanical compression of the heart resulting from large amounts of fluid collecting in the pericardial space and limiting the heart's normal range of motion

cardiomegaly

Enlargement of the heart

cardiomyopathy

a group of diseases that affect the myocardium's (heart muscle's) structure or function

chorea

a nervous condition marked by involuntary muscular twitching of the limbs or facial muscles

commissurotomy

surgical incision of any commissure as in cardiac valves to increase the size of the orifice

dressler's syndrome

postmyocardial infarction syndrome; pericarditis.

emboli

A blood clot, air bubble, piece of fatty deposit, or other object that has been carried in the bloodstream or lymphatic vessel

infective endocarditis

inflammation of the inner layer of heart tissue as a result of an infectious microorganism

insufficiency

condition of being inadequate for a given purpose, such as heart valves that do not close properly

internationalized normalized ratio

used to monitor coumadin levels

murmur

an abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the heart and adjacent large blood vessels

myocarditis

inflammation of the myocardium (the muscular tissue of the heart)

pericardial effusion

an accumulation of excess fluid in the pericardial sac.

pericardial friction rub

friction sound heard over the 4th left intercostal space near the sternum; a classic sign of pericarditis

pericardiectomy

excision of all or part of the pericardium

pericardiocentesis

surgical puncture to aspirate fluid from the pericardium

pericarditis

inflammation of the pericardium

petechiae

Small, pinpoint, purplish hemorrhagic spots on the skin

regurgitation

backflow of blood through a defective heart valve

rheumatic fever

a hypersensitivity reaction to antigens of group A beta-hemolytic streptococci

stenosis

constriction or narrowing of a passage or orifice, such as a cardiac valve

thrombophlebitis

inflammation of a vein associated with a clot formation

valvotomy

cutting into or incision of a valve

valvuloplasty

plastic or restorative surgery on a valve, especially a cardiac valve

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