At one time, this was the only port of China that allowed trade with foreigners. It was exempt from all Chinese law after the US and other foreign nations gained extraterritorial rights. Chinese port that received a lot of Opium in the British trade network.
British East India Company
This company controlled most of India during the period of imperialism. Supported by the British Parliament, the company leaders controlled the political, social, and economic life in India for more than 200 years. Led by Sir Robert Clyde, they held a monopoly over the trade of Indian cotton, opium, salt, and other resources. After the Great Mutiny, the British government took direct control over India, though British profits from trade continued.
Great Mutiny/Sepoy Rebellion
Revolt or mutiny by Muslims and Hindus soldiers called Sepoys in the British army in India. Spread to north and central India. The revolt was eventually crushed. In 1857 the British government issued Enfield Rifles that used cartridges that came in a wax paper made of animal fat. Soldiers feared breaking their religious beliefs because the wax might be made of cows for Hindus and pigs for Muslims. As a result of this revolt, the British Parliament took over the governing of India from the British East India Company.
Her reign from 1837-1901 was the longest in English history. Her sense of duty and moral respectability reflected the attitudes of her age, which has since been known as the "Victorian Age". British feeling of national pride increased. British queen who was given the title of "Empress of India", and ruled during the height of British Imperialism.
Indian National Congress
A movement and political party founded in 1885 to demand greater Indian participation in government. Its membership was middle class, and its demands were modest until World War I. Led after 1920 by Mohandas K. Gandhi, appealing to the poor. The group was formed by Hindu nationalist leaders of India in the late 1800's to gain greater democracy and eventual self-rule.
Dutch East Indies
Dutch colony north of Australia (modern day Indonesia); ideal colony because they exported more than they imported; rich resources; no competition with European goods; location of forced labor producing sugar cane and coffee; native languages were allowed to remain. Also called The Spice Islands, the discovery of oil and tin on the islands and the desire for more rubber plantations prompted the Dutch to gradually expand their control over Sumatra, part of Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccas, and Bali. The Dutch ruled the whole island chain.
The Dutch policy that required Indonesian peasants to plant one fifth of their land in export crops which were then turned over to the Dutch as taxes. Eventually the Dutch created schools and encouraged the use of the Dutch language by the native people. This would lead to resentment and the growth of nationalist sentiments.
Nguyen Dynasty, 1802-1945
The last Vietnamese ruling house which put an end to the 30 year peasant rebellion and civil war and unified the country for the first time. In the mid-1800's the native Vietnamese rulers became worried about the growing number of foreigners and the threat of Christianity to their own Confucian beliefs, resulting in the execution of as many as 30,000 French missionaries and converts. As a result, in 1859 the French government invaded and took control of Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia creating "French Indochina". Local leaders were left on their thrones while France dominated and spread French culture.
A labor system that was employed by the Spanish crown during the Spanish colonization of the Americas and the Philippines in order to consolidate their conquests. Spanish settlers were granted trusteeship over the indigenous people they conquered, given the right to tax the natives, and had control over local armies and courts.
The Opium War
European merchants originally bought Chinese tea with silver, which China benefited from. However, in the early 1800's Britain substituted silver with Opium grown in India to pay for tea, and soon millions of Chinese became addicted to the drug. Not only was the opium a societal disaster for the Chinese, but the loss of silver harmed the Chinese economy. The Chinese outlawed opium, executed drug dealers, and told Britain to stop the trade, but the Brits refused. Chinese and British warships clashed in 1839, Britain bombed Chinese ports heavily, and the outdated Chinese military was easily defeated.
The Treaty of Nanjing
As a result of the Opium War, this treaty forced China to pay indemnity to Britain, caused China to give up the island of Hong Kong to the British, forced China to open five additional ports to external trade (including Guangzhou and Shanghai), and introduced the concept of "Extraterritoriality", whereby British citizens living in China were not subject to Chinese laws or courts.
When a nation gives special economic rights to a foreign power. For example, large areas of Chinese trading ports were leased in perpetuity to foreign powers. Rights were given to foreign merchants that even local merchants did not have.
Rebellion (1850-1864) in Qing China led by Hong Xiuquan, during which 20 to 30 million were killed; the rebellion was symbolic of the decline of China during 19th century. Leaders of this conflict believed in property and legal equality, and also wanted to overthrow the Manchu government. Most of the fighting during this conflict took place in the rural countryside and southrn China. The Rebellion failed because of a lack of organzation and agreement between the leaders.
1911 Revolution in China
The uprising that brought China's last Dynasty to an end. After the humiliating defeat in the Sino-Japanese War, as well as the anger over the continued dominance by foreign merchants in the Chinese economy (as symbolized by the Boxer Rebellion) , revolutionaries from a variety of viewpoints bonded together to end China's long history of monarchy. In 1912 a rrepublic based on Western political ideas was established.
American naval commander who in 1853 brought a fleet of four ships into Tokyo Harbor with a letter for the Tokugawa shogun from U.S. President Millard Fillmore. The letter asked the Japanese to open their ports so that U.S. ships could dock and re-supply with water and coal. Perry threatened the Japanese that he would return the next year with a much larger fleet awaiting their response. This forced diplomacy became known as "gunboat diplomacy"
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism. A period of modernization for Japan, Meiji means enlightened rule. Leaders studied western ways and developed a new government and military in order to prevent imperialism following Matthew Perry's visit. It also reestablished the power of the Emperor.
Fought in 1904-05, this war started as a result of both empires seeking to take over parts of China and Korea. The overextended Russian military fought bravely, but the incompetence of their generals eventually led to their defeat to a newly modernized Japanese army and navy. The Russian defeat marked the first victory of an Asian nation over a European empire, and resulted in the end of Russian efforts to imperialize Asia. It also was a step toward the Russian Revolution.
Workers, who in exchange for passage agreed to work for a number of years, specified in the contract. Millions of Asians, especially Indians, moved to other parts of the world to work on plantations, in mines, in factories, or on construction projects controlled by European imperial powers. Indentured labor increased dramatically in the 1800's as more and more nations outlawed the practice of slavery. One of the results was a massive migration of Asians to places like Peru, South Africa, Singapore, and other resource-rich colonies.
Boxer Rebellion, 1899-1900
An uprising in China aimed at ending foreign influence in the country. The rebellion ended in failure after an international military force entered China, including troops from Japan and the United States. It also fostered nationalist sentiment among the Chinese people, and was another event onthe road to the 1911 Revolution in China.