The feeding structure characteristic of molluscs that looks like a tongue with teeth is called a:
You find a small, elongated animal embedded in sand with one end sticking out. It has segmental musculature, a coelom, a series of pores on either side of the body, and a complete digestive tract with an anus located partway down the body. This animal is:
Angiosperms disperse their seeds by producing:
fleshy, edible fruits that are consumed by animals which defecate the seeds; seeds that catch the wind; seeds that sometimes attach to animals
How do sugars move from one sieve-tube cell to the next?
by flowing along with water through perforations in the sieve plate
A bilaterally symmetrical, wormlike animal that has a pseudocoelom, a complete digestive tract, and a transparent cuticle could be a member of what phyla?
Why does human skin color become lighter in more northern populations?
sufficient UV light must penetrate the skin in order to synthesize vitamin D
The flexible, longitudinal rod that is located between the digestive tract and the nerve cord in chordates is called the:
What is NOT part of the animal lifecycle?
a diploid sporophyte produces a haploid gametophyte larva, which grows into an adult
What character best correlates with having a four chambered heart?
high metabolic rate with endothermic metabolism
Wholesale commercial production of many horticultural crops makes use of cloning techniques. What is an advantage of cloning over sexual propagation?
plants produced by cloning grow more uniformly
You find a creature laying eggs in a pond that has four legs and thin, moist skin. You collect some of the eggs and they hatch into larvae that have a tail and no legs, but have a lateral line system. This creature belongs to which group of vertebrates?
Animals that are segmented and have jointed appendages and an exoskeleton are members of the phylum:
In the tissue level of organization:
cells of one or more specialized types work together for common function, and are bound together with specialized junctions
The specialized organ used by most mammals to transfer nutrition from the mother to the young inside their bodies is called the:
The group of primates that includes the monkeys as well as humans and chimpanzees is called the:
In plants, vascular tissue that consists of living cells that distribute sugars throughout the plant is called:
The most ancestral group of primates, which includes the lorises and tarsiers, is called the:
The type of plant vascular tissue specialized to conduct sugars and other metabolic products is called?
If you tied a bell onto a branch of a sapling today, where will you find the bell-marked branch in 20 years?
at roughly the same height
The most important factor responsible for pushing growing root through soil is?
cell elongation behind apical meristem
What force transports water and minerals to the top of a tall tree?
evaporation from the tree drags water upward
The sugar "sink" in roots is created by the:
active transport of sugars from phloem to other root cells
What best describes tissue grade of construction?
cells of several types work together for a common function and are bound together
What are the characteristics that make Nematoda different from other phyla?
they are pseudocoelomates
What is a statement about amphibians that is false?
lungs and appendages for support first evolved in amphibians
What feature doesn't change in specified way during the evolution of hominids?
thumb becomes opposable
What is a true similarity between algae and plants?
plants and algae both are eukaryotic photosynthesizers
An important interaction between fungi and plants is a mycorrhiza, which:
helps plants take up nutrients and water
Vascular tissues of plants include:
xylem for conducting water and minerals, and phloem for conducting dissolved organic molecules
These embryophytes have swimming sperm, lack a complex vascular system, and cannot grow tall. What are they?
The ___, a zone of rapid cell division that produces growth, is found at primary root and stem tips.
What groups require a water film for reproduction because they have swimming, flagellated sperm?
bryophytes, lycophytes, and ferns
At what time in the evolutionary history of plants did vascular systems likely first evolve?
What characteristic tends to limit bryophytes and seedless vascular plants to habitats that are relatively moist?
presence of flagellated sperm
Plants undergo alternation of generations in which:
the sporophyte generation alternates with the gametophyte generation
In the moss life cycle, ____ cells within a sporangium undergo ___ to produce ___ spores.
diploid, meiosis, haploid
During the Carboniferous period, forests consisting mainly of ___ produced vast quantities of organic, matter, which was buried and later became coal.
lycophytes and ferns
What statement is true about the gametophyte tissue that surrounds the pine embryo?
it functions as a haploid food reserve
In angiosperms, pollen grains are released from the ____, land on the sticky ___, and develop a tube down the length of the style to the ovules.
The ___ is the protective chamber that houses the ovule and later matures to become the fruit.
You find a wildflower that has large, brilliantly colored petals, but it has no odor. What can you deduce about its pollinators?
its pollinators locate flowers by visual cues rather than by smell
There is a fungus in Oregon that covers 2,200 acres! The bulk of this fungus is most likely:
Familiar "toadstools" (mushrooms), puffballs, and shelf fungi are classified in this group.
club fungi (basidiomycetes)
In their most important roles, fungi ___ plants by ____
benefit, mycorrhizal associations and decomposition
Monocot stems differ from dicot stems in that:
in cross section the vascular bundles of monocots have a complex arrangement, whereas in dicots the vascular bundles are arranged in a circle
How does plant growth change if the terminal bud is removed or its growth is otherwise hindered?
growth of axillary buds is stimulated so the plant grows outward instead of just upward
The chief function of root hairs is to:
increase the surface area for absorption of water and minerals
Under ideal environmental conditions, a plant has produced much more carbohydrate than it needs to survive. Where will this surplus likely go in the plant body?
Annual rings in wood reflect the fact that in climates with a single growing season every year, the ___ divides actively when water is plentiful and temperatures are suitable for growth, and ceases to divide when water is scarce and the weather is cold.
How do root hairs aid in water uptake in roots?
root hairs increase the surface area of a root, thus increasing the root's absorptive capacity
What is the main source of energy that moves water upward in the trunk of a tree?
evaporation of water by the sun
A student is performing a chemical analysis of xylem sap. This student should not expect to find much:
Guard cells actively open and close the stomata of leaves. What delicate internal balance do these guard cells control with their actions?
the balance between water uptake and gas exchange
In an apple tree that is producing sugars, sugar might flow from ____ to ______
a leaf, a developing apple
As I walk through the local grocery store, I notice some beautiful tomatoes with a big "organically grown" sticker. I am quick to pay more for these tomatoes because they must be better for me. Is this a valid assumption?
No. There appears to be little difference in nutrition when comparing organic and conventional farming practices.
I had the privilege of visiting Mt. St. Helens in the late 1990s. One of the things I noticed was that very few plants were growing in the blast zone due to the scarcity of certain essential elements. In fact, the few plants growing in the area were members of the plant group called legumes. What allows legumes to grow in this area?
They have a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria
What conditions would produce plants that are parasitic or carnivorous?
the plants are supplementing nutrients to aid growth
A researcher discovers a mysterious unknown multicellular eukaryotic organism. She would be confident that it is an animal if she observed that it:
has muscles and nerve cells
The phrase "Cambrian explosion" refers to:
the rapid adaptive radiation of marine animals that gave rise to most extant animal phyla
During the Cambrian explosion approximately 542 million years ago,:
animals rapidly diversified in the oceans over a period of about 15 million years
Zoologists place chordates and echinoderms on one major branch of the animal phylogenetic tree, and molluscs, annelids, arthropods, and many other phyla on another major branch. What is a basis for this separation?
how the body cavity is formed
A true coelom is best described as:
a body cavity that is fully lined by tissue derived from the mesoderm
True or false. Animals with bilateral symmetry can only be divided into a medial slice, resulting in matching right and left parts.
A spectacular marine animal has a network of glassy spicules that forms a cagelike structure. Bioluminescent shrimp spend their entire adult lives within this cage. The intricate cage housing its glowing shrimp is a traditional wedding gift in some Asian countries. The animal that forms the cage does not have true tissues. It is a suspension feeder. How does the cage-building animal get nutrients from its feeding cells to other parts of its body?
A typical spong is best described as:
a sessile suspension feeder with no true tissues or body symmetry
Jellies (also incorrectly called "jellyfish") and coral animals both:
have special stinging cells on their tentacles
Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are ____ and typically have _____
bilaterally symmetrical, a gastrovascular cavity with one opening
What correctly describes a nematode?
worm with a cuticle, fluid-filled body cavity, and a complete digestive tract
A bilaterally symmetrical, wormlike animal that has a pseudocoelom, a complete digestive tract, and a cuticle could be a member of what phyla?
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease that affects some 200 million people. It is caused by a parasitic flatworm that is transmitted to humans through contact with an air-breathing mollusc. The parasite and mollusc, respectively, are ____
flukes and snails
An active marine predator is found possessing these characteristics: a series of tentacles (modified from the foot), a highly developed nervous system, and elaborate image-forming eyes. This organism is most likely a(n):
You go to the supermarket and ask a clerk where you can find the gastropods. He takes you to the "weird food" section and points out a container of _____
Kids sometimes pick up "bloodsuckers" in ponds, but these segmented animals typically spend most of their time parasitizing turtles. Some are used medicinally to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation near injuries in humans. They are:
leeches, a type of annelid
A fearsome predator lurks in the dark corners of human dwellings. It has many similar body segments, with a single pair of long legs on each, and a pair of poison claws. This animal would be a:
features a larval stage that looks different from the adult stage, with a pupa in between
The flexible, longitudinal rod that is located between the digestive tract and the nerve cord in chordates is called the:
Why are annelids, arthropods, and mollusks placed in the same clade?
they are bilaterally symmetrical
A biologist visited a fish market and found a fish she did not recognize. To place the unknown fish into a major group, she would need to look at _____.
the structure and composition of the skeleton and the structure and arrangement of the fins
You study fossils and have a particular interest in finding early transitional members of terrestrial vertebrate classes. To find early _____, you would have to go to the deepest, earliest fossil layers.
Extant nonbird reptiles are ____, whereas birds are different in that they are_____
Which part of the body is likely to be much more diverse in mammal fossils compared to those of other groups?
In 1997, scientists discovered a new species of primate, only 10 cm long, with widely spaced nostrils that open outward and a long prehensile tail. This animal would be a(n) ___
New World monkey
If you were to observe a monkey in a zoo, what characteristic would clearly indicate a New World origin for that monkey species?
use of the tail to hang from a tree limb
What anthropoid group consists of primates who are mostly tree dwellers and whose forelimbs and hind limbs are about equal in length?