The feeding structure characteristic of molluscs that looks like a tongue with teeth is called a:
Gas exchange in plants occurs through structures called:
A mature ovary, specialized as a vessel that houses and protects seeds, is a:
Pine trees are included in a group of plants called the:
You find a small, elongated animal embedded in sand with one end sticking out. It has segmental musculature, a coelom, a series of pores on either side of the body, and a complete digestive tract with an anus located partway down the body. This animal is:
In general, we can say that fluids are:
pushed along in phloem sap and pulled along in xylem sap
What is an essential macronutrient for plants and is obtained directly from the atmosphere?
What is a characteristic of the phylum Arthropoda?
What is in the group Osteichthyes?
Angiosperms disperse their seeds by producing:
fleshy, edible fruits that are consumed by animals which defecate the seeds; seeds that catch the wind; seeds that sometimes attach to animals
What group has similar segments over most of its body?
What structure is found in plant AND animal cells?
What is the first distinctively hominin trait to appear in the fossil record?
What character is typically associated with bilateral symmetry?
What is NOT a requirement for true multicellularity?
The body form of a sea anemone is called a:
How do sugars move from one sieve-tube cell to the next?
by flowing along with water through perforations in the sieve plate
Individual fungal filaments are called:
A bilaterally symmetrical, wormlike animal that has a pseudocoelom, a complete digestive tract, and a transparent cuticle could be a member of what phyla?
What is not a characteristic of mollusks?
three main parts of the body: head, trunk, and tail
What is a characteristic of animals in the group Reptilia?
Why does human skin color become lighter in more northern populations?
sufficient UV light must penetrate the skin in order to synthesize vitamin D
The flexible, longitudinal rod that is located between the digestive tract and the nerve cord in chordates is called the:
The rapid new shoot growth on a tree during the spring arises mainly from:
What is NOT part of the animal lifecycle?
a diploid sporophyte produces a haploid gametophyte larva, which grows into an adult
What character best correlates with having a four chambered heart?
high metabolic rate with endothermic metabolism
Segments are combined into body regions called:
Wholesale commercial production of many horticultural crops makes use of cloning techniques. What is an advantage of cloning over sexual propagation?
plants produced by cloning grow more uniformly
You find a creature laying eggs in a pond that has four legs and thin, moist skin. You collect some of the eggs and they hatch into larvae that have a tail and no legs, but have a lateral line system. This creature belongs to which group of vertebrates?
Animals that are segmented and have jointed appendages and an exoskeleton are members of the phylum:
The tissue layer that gives rise to the digestive tract and associated organs is called:
The hand-over-hand motion used by primates to swing from tree to tree is called:
The stage at which an embryo is simply a hollow ball of cells is called the:
The type of life cycle seen in plants is called:
alternation of generations
What is a characteristic of flatworms?
In the tissue level of organization:
cells of one or more specialized types work together for common function, and are bound together with specialized junctions
The specialized organ used by most mammals to transfer nutrition from the mother to the young inside their bodies is called the:
The group of primates that includes the monkeys as well as humans and chimpanzees is called the:
What statement is false?
In plants, vascular tissue that consists of living cells that distribute sugars throughout the plant is called:
The term used to describe an organism that is permanently attached to the bottom is:
An internal body space of animals that is completely lined by mesoderm is called a:
Neanderthals and modern humans are best described as:
What is NOT a reason Nematoda are important to humans:
The most ancestral group of primates, which includes the lorises and tarsiers, is called the:
What is a characteristic of animals in the group Aves?
What essential nutrient is most likely to leach from the soil?
Flowers bear seeds in protective chambers called:
What cell provides flexible support to growing parts of plants?
What is the type of life cycle seen in plants?
alternation of generations
About 95% of all plants:
have dominant sporophytes in their life cycle
A key step in the adaptation of seed plants to dry land was the evolution of?
The type of plant vascular tissue specialized to conduct sugars and other metabolic products is called?
If you tied a bell onto a branch of a sapling today, where will you find the bell-marked branch in 20 years?
at roughly the same height
The most important factor responsible for pushing growing root through soil is?
cell elongation behind apical meristem
Rapid new shoot growth on trees in the spring arises mainly from?
What was the condition of germinating seeds when in the attic?
they were dormant
Where does most dry matter in plants come from?
carbon dioxide from the air
What force transports water and minerals to the top of a tall tree?
evaporation from the tree drags water upward
Dew, fog, etc. affect vascular plants by:
reducing transpiration rate
The sugar "sink" in roots is created by the:
active transport of sugars from phloem to other root cells
What best describes tissue grade of construction?
cells of several types work together for a common function and are bound together
A coelom is:
a body cavity completely lined with mesoderm
What are the characteristics that make Nematoda different from other phyla?
they are pseudocoelomates
What type of Mollusk is typically a crawling gazer?
Organisms that feed on minute particles in the water are called:
What is a statement about amphibians that is false?
lungs and appendages for support first evolved in amphibians
What allowed reptiles to complete their development on land?
an amniotic egg
What is not characteristic of modern birds?
What is not true about mammals?
mammals are ectothermic
The oldest known primate group is the:
About how long ago did Homo sapiens appear?
150,000 years ago
What feature doesn't change in specified way during the evolution of hominids?
thumb becomes opposable
What produces gametes?
Correct term for the stinging cells of jellyfish?
What makes echinoderms different from arthropods?
a water vascular system
"Reproductive" character for reptiles?
What is a true similarity between algae and plants?
plants and algae both are eukaryotic photosynthesizers
protective chambers that keep gametes and early embyros moist
What structures allow plants to readily take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?
What characteristic is shared by algae and seed plants?
An important interaction between fungi and plants is a mycorrhiza, which:
helps plants take up nutrients and water
What structure allows plants to readily take up carbon dioxide from the atmosphere?
Vascular tissues of plants include:
xylem for conducting water and minerals, and phloem for conducting dissolved organic molecules
These embryophytes have swimming sperm, lack a complex vascular system, and cannot grow tall. What are they?
Gas exchange in most land plants occurs through structures called:
The ___, a zone of rapid cell division that produces growth, is found at primary root and stem tips.
What groups require a water film for reproduction because they have swimming, flagellated sperm?
bryophytes, lycophytes, and ferns
At what time in the evolutionary history of plants did vascular systems likely first evolve?
What characteristic tends to limit bryophytes and seedless vascular plants to habitats that are relatively moist?
presence of flagellated sperm
In a standard plant life cycle, gametophytes are____
Plants undergo alternation of generations in which:
the sporophyte generation alternates with the gametophyte generation
In moss, ____ produce sperm.
The sperm produced by mosses require ___ to reachan archegonia.
In the moss life cycle, ____ cells within a sporangium undergo ___ to produce ___ spores.
diploid, meiosis, haploid
In mosses gametes are produced by _____; in ferns gametes are produced by____
Where do fern antheridia develop?
on the underside of the gametophyte
The conspicuous part of a fern plant is a:
During the Carboniferous period, forests consisting mainly of ___ produced vast quantities of organic, matter, which was buried and later became coal.
lycophytes and ferns
Are pollen grains male or female gametophytes?
In pines, the female gametophyte contains ____, each of which contains a(n) _____
In pines, an embryo is a(n):
In pine trees, pollen grains get to the ovule via the:
What statement is true about the gametophyte tissue that surrounds the pine embryo?
it functions as a haploid food reserve
Of the four haploid cells produced by a pine cone's megasporocyte, ___ survive(s).
In the pine, microsporangia form ___ microspores by ___
In angiosperms, pollen grains are released from the ____, land on the sticky ___, and develop a tube down the length of the style to the ovules.
The defining reproductive adaptation of angiosperms is the:
A fruit is a ripened ____
A pollen grain is a :
male haploid gametophyte
The ___ is the protective chamber that houses the ovule and later matures to become the fruit.
Pollen is to sperm as ___ is to ___
female gametophyte, egg
After fertilization, the ____ develops into a seed and the ___ develops into a fruit.
What structure is found in angiosperms but not gymnosperms?
You find a wildflower that has large, brilliantly colored petals, but it has no odor. What can you deduce about its pollinators?
its pollinators locate flowers by visual cues rather than by smell
In contrast to plants, the cell walls of fungi are composed of:
There is a fungus in Oregon that covers 2,200 acres! The bulk of this fungus is most likely:
Fungi obtain nutrients through:
Yeasts reproduce asexually through ___, and molds reproduce asexually through ___
What structure is an essential part of most fungal reproductive systems?
What structure is not involved in the reproduction of at least one major group of fungi?
What group of fungi contains edible mushrooms?
True or false. All fungi are thought to be descended from an ancient chytrid.
Familiar "toadstools" (mushrooms), puffballs, and shelf fungi are classified in this group.
club fungi (basidiomycetes)
As a group, fungi are:
Fungi release digestive enzymes into their:
Basidia produces spores by a process known as:
close associations of photosynthesizers and fungi
In their most important roles, fungi ___ plants by ____
benefit, mycorrhizal associations and decomposition
What is a characteristic of dicots?
dicots have two seed leaves
Monocot stems differ from dicot stems in that:
in cross section the vascular bundles of monocots have a complex arrangement, whereas in dicots the vascular bundles are arranged in a circle
Angiosperm is another name for:
a flowering plant
How does plant growth change if the terminal bud is removed or its growth is otherwise hindered?
growth of axillary buds is stimulated so the plant grows outward instead of just upward
The chief function of root hairs is to:
increase the surface area for absorption of water and minerals
Under ideal environmental conditions, a plant has produced much more carbohydrate than it needs to survive. Where will this surplus likely go in the plant body?
The plant tissue system most analogous to our circulatory system is the:
control the rate at which a plant loses water
In most leaves, chloroplast-containing cells are most closely compacted in the:
A region of cell division in a plant is called a:
Annual rings in wood reflect the fact that in climates with a single growing season every year, the ___ divides actively when water is plentiful and temperatures are suitable for growth, and ceases to divide when water is scarce and the weather is cold.
The female structures of angiosperms are called ____, and they produce ____
The floral parts that take an active part in reproduction are:
stamens and carpels
Pollen is ___ and produces _____
haploid, sperm nuclei
The male structures of angiosperms are called ___, and they produce ____
Flowers bear seeds in protective chambers called:
How do root hairs aid in water uptake in roots?
root hairs increase the surface area of a root, thus increasing the root's absorptive capacity
What describes the loss of water through the stomata in a plant's leaves?
What is the main source of energy that moves water upward in the trunk of a tree?
evaporation of water by the sun
A student is performing a chemical analysis of xylem sap. This student should not expect to find much:
Guard cells actively open and close the stomata of leaves. What delicate internal balance do these guard cells control with their actions?
the balance between water uptake and gas exchange
can regulate the rate of transpiration
In general, stomata are ___ during the day and ____ at night.
In an apple tree that is producing sugars, sugar might flow from ____ to ______
a leaf, a developing apple
A ____ is a sugar source.
What substance does the plant obtain from the air?
Fertilizers are usually enriched in:
nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium
As I walk through the local grocery store, I notice some beautiful tomatoes with a big "organically grown" sticker. I am quick to pay more for these tomatoes because they must be better for me. Is this a valid assumption?
No. There appears to be little difference in nutrition when comparing organic and conventional farming practices.
I had the privilege of visiting Mt. St. Helens in the late 1990s. One of the things I noticed was that very few plants were growing in the blast zone due to the scarcity of certain essential elements. In fact, the few plants growing in the area were members of the plant group called legumes. What allows legumes to grow in this area?
They have a symbiotic association with nitrogen-fixing bacteria
Mycorrhizae are ____
associations of roots with beneficial fungi
What conditions would produce plants that are parasitic or carnivorous?
the plants are supplementing nutrients to aid growth
A researcher discovers a mysterious unknown multicellular eukaryotic organism. She would be confident that it is an animal if she observed that it:
has muscles and nerve cells
The phrase "Cambrian explosion" refers to:
the rapid adaptive radiation of marine animals that gave rise to most extant animal phyla
Animals probably evolved from:
During the Cambrian explosion approximately 542 million years ago,:
animals rapidly diversified in the oceans over a period of about 15 million years
What is something that is radially symmetrical?
An animal is called a protostome or a deuterostome based on:
the way its body cavity develops
Zoologists place chordates and echinoderms on one major branch of the animal phylogenetic tree, and molluscs, annelids, arthropods, and many other phyla on another major branch. What is a basis for this separation?
how the body cavity is formed
What best represents a hydrostatic skeleton?
a water balloon
A true coelom is best described as:
a body cavity that is fully lined by tissue derived from the mesoderm
What trait distinguishes the phylum Porifera from all other animal phyla?
they lack tissues
True or false. Animals with bilateral symmetry can only be divided into a medial slice, resulting in matching right and left parts.
A spectacular marine animal has a network of glassy spicules that forms a cagelike structure. Bioluminescent shrimp spend their entire adult lives within this cage. The intricate cage housing its glowing shrimp is a traditional wedding gift in some Asian countries. The animal that forms the cage does not have true tissues. It is a suspension feeder. How does the cage-building animal get nutrients from its feeding cells to other parts of its body?
A typical spong is best described as:
a sessile suspension feeder with no true tissues or body symmetry
Jellies (also incorrectly called "jellyfish") and coral animals both:
have special stinging cells on their tentacles
Cnidaria have both:
stinging cells and a gastrovascular cavity
Coral reefs are:
hard external skeletons secreted by coral animals (Cnidaria)
Flatworms (Platyhelminthes) are ____ and typically have _____
bilaterally symmetrical, a gastrovascular cavity with one opening
What correctly describes a nematode?
worm with a cuticle, fluid-filled body cavity, and a complete digestive tract
A bilaterally symmetrical, wormlike animal that has a pseudocoelom, a complete digestive tract, and a cuticle could be a member of what phyla?
Schistosomiasis is a debilitating disease that affects some 200 million people. It is caused by a parasitic flatworm that is transmitted to humans through contact with an air-breathing mollusc. The parasite and mollusc, respectively, are ____
flukes and snails
An active marine predator is found possessing these characteristics: a series of tentacles (modified from the foot), a highly developed nervous system, and elaborate image-forming eyes. This organism is most likely a(n):
You go to the supermarket and ask a clerk where you can find the gastropods. He takes you to the "weird food" section and points out a container of _____
Kids sometimes pick up "bloodsuckers" in ponds, but these segmented animals typically spend most of their time parasitizing turtles. Some are used medicinally to improve blood flow and reduce inflammation near injuries in humans. They are:
leeches, a type of annelid
Earthworms are most closely related to:
A fearsome predator lurks in the dark corners of human dwellings. It has many similar body segments, with a single pair of long legs on each, and a pair of poison claws. This animal would be a:
The phylum ____ includes the largest number of species of all animal phyla.
What group includes both spiders and horseshoe crabs?
features a larval stage that looks different from the adult stage, with a pupa in between
A sea star and a sea jelly belong to the phyla ___ and ____, respectively.
The water vascular system of a sea star functions in:
movement of the tube feet
What chordate group lacks a post-anal tial and a notochord as adults?
What is the only chordate group that has hair?
The flexible, longitudinal rod that is located between the digestive tract and the nerve cord in chordates is called the:
Why are annelids, arthropods, and mollusks placed in the same clade?
they are bilaterally symmetrical
Roundworms are classified in the phylum _____
At the phylum level, you are most closely related to a(n):
The two distinguishing features of mammals are the presence of ____
hair and mammary glands
The duck-billed platypus and other monotremes differ from other mammals in that they:
The most ancestral extant tetrapods are ____ derived from ______
amphibians, lobe-finned fishes
How do lampreys differ from all other extant vertebrates?
they lack both jaws and paired appendages
A biologist visited a fish market and found a fish she did not recognize. To place the unknown fish into a major group, she would need to look at _____.
the structure and composition of the skeleton and the structure and arrangement of the fins
By far the largest number of extant fish species on Earth have:
an operculum and swim bladder
The first vertebrates to live on land were most likely derived from:
What trait tends to tie amphibians to wet or moist habitats?
moist skin and soft, unprotected eggs
You study fossils and have a particular interest in finding early transitional members of terrestrial vertebrate classes. To find early _____, you would have to go to the deepest, earliest fossil layers.
Extant nonbird reptiles are ____, whereas birds are different in that they are_____
nourish their offspring through mammary glands
Amphibians, reptiles, and birds are all:
Which part of the body is likely to be much more diverse in mammal fossils compared to those of other groups?
In 1997, scientists discovered a new species of primate, only 10 cm long, with widely spaced nostrils that open outward and a long prehensile tail. This animal would be a(n) ___
New World monkey
The two major groups of anthropoids are:
monkeys and apes
If you were to observe a monkey in a zoo, what characteristic would clearly indicate a New World origin for that monkey species?
use of the tail to hang from a tree limb
The earliest primates were most similar to modern ____
lorises, pottos, and lemurs
Humans are hominoids. Members of what other living (extant) group are also hominoids?
What primate group is most closely related to hominids?
____ are the oldest known primate group.
The primates that spend the most time walking upright are the _____
What anthropoid group consists of primates who are mostly tree dwellers and whose forelimbs and hind limbs are about equal in length?
The last common ancestor shared by humans and chimpanzees lived about:
Human skin color differences are apparently:
an adaptation to latitudinal differences in the intensity of solar radiation