Ch. 7: Differences in Verbal Styles

Created by rsandoval1985 

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Animated

conveys emotional expressiveness and vitality

Axiomatic-deductive

present general principles then move to fill in specific details

Blind panel

not known to self but known to others

Collaborative dialogue

intercultural parties try to suspend their assumptions regarding how to conduct smooth conversations

collectivists

mutual-face and other-face orientations tend toward this

Complementary

matter-of-fact tone in delivering verbal message

Compound

master 2 languages in same context. One reality without feeling difference of context

Compound and Coordinate

two types of bilinguals

Concealment

(closedness) refers to the lack of disclosure or sharing of exclusive information about either the public self or the private self.

Coordinate

different situational context (home and school)

Deductive

big picture to specific

Difference of Complementary, Animated, and Understated Verbal Style

Animated and understated refer to the rhythms, emotional expressiveness, and intensity of tone of voice that accompany verbal content message. The complementary style refers to a matter-of-fact tone in delivering your verbal message

Direct versus Indirect verbal style

Differ in how they reveal the speaker's iuntentions through tone of voice and the straightforwardness of the content in the message

Direct verbal style

reveal speakers intentions w/ clarity and are enunciated with forthright tone of voice

Dramatic style

effusive metaphors, adjectives, stories to reinforce a point

Edward T Hall

founding father of intercultural communication

Empathetic speaker to nonnatives

Redonuciation exercise; repeat 2 verbs with similar meanings

Face

claimed sense of social self-worth that a person wants others to have of her or him

Face loss

treated in a way that challenges, threatens, or ignores our identity claims

Face-negotiation

Face is a sense of social self-worth a person wants others to have and there are two concerns in conversations: self-face and other-face. A facework are verbal and nonverbal behaviors to maintain or restore face loss or face-saving. We may think of face issues in terms of how to reject a request or interms of how to get our own requests granted with strategies like: open invitations, promises and in more collectivistic societies like appeals to duty.

Face-saving issues

how to protect our own or others face from being embarrassed

Facework

verbal and nonverbal behaviors to maintain or restore face loss and to uphold and honor face gain

Factual-inductive

present facts, then draw conclusion

Four high-context verbal styles

indirect style, animated understated style, formal style, and preference for silence

Four low-context verbal styles

direct style, complementary style, informal style, and preference for talkativeness

Hidden panel

known to self but unknown to others

High Context

Carlos was extremely relational and therefore was what from the multi-cultural workforce films

High context

collectivistic, large power distance and spiral relational and logic

High Context

contextual type of an indirect person

High Context

Intention or meaning is best conveyed through the context and nonverbal channels

High Context

Joy Luck Club scene with mother's comment about fur coat

High context

more emphasis on culture norms and history

High Context

mother humbling her cooking in the Joy Luck Club

High Context

relational harmony, mutual face saving, circumspective, verbal self-humbling style, female, silence, non-verbal nuances, Biz; have to know person (relational), affective

High context

Collectivists tend towards this type of context

High context

indirect verbal style, emotionally understated mode, self-humbling talk, and silence

How Beliefs are expressed in talk and silence.

Beliefs are expressed in talk and silence either in high-context cultures where silence can help understanding or from western rhetorical model where silence is viewed as ignorant lapses that should be filled with talk.

Indirect verbal style

statements tend to camoflage speaker's actual intentions and are carried out in softer tone

Individualists

self-face orientation tend to be who

inductive

specific cases begin to build case. Specific to general

Informal versus Formal verbal styles.

respecting unique, personal identities (informal) versus honoring prescribed power-based membership identities (formal)

Intercultural persuasion process

In ICC it means to require flexible intercultural persuasion skills and responsive intercultural face-work skills

Johari window is

Information about oneself is depicted as a window with four panels: open panel, hidden panel, blind panel and unknown panel.

Linear persuasion style

The linear persuasion style includes two forms: Factual-inductive (facts to conclusion) and the Axiomatic-deductive (principles to specific details)

Linear-logic versus spiral-logic persuasion.

Linear persuasion style (low-context) tends towards facts then details or principles to details and Spiral persuasion style (high-context) ranges from dramatic to subtle forms to reinforce messages.

Low Context

contextual type of a direct person

Low Context

George was linear and highly compartmentalized and was therefore consider what in the multi-cultural workforce films

Low Context

individual, small power distance and linear logic (A -> B -> X)

Low context

Rich from Joy Luck club at the dinner scene when he poured soy sauce over the mother's meal

Low Context

self-facing, verbally assertive, verbal self-enhancement, talkative, explicit, task and instrumental, compartmentalize and work versus relational

Low context

Individualists tend towards this type of context

Low v. High Contex

Direct v. Indirect; Complementary, Animated and Understated Verbal Styles; Informal v. Formal Verbal Styles; Beliefs Expressed in Talk and Silence

Modes of Persuasion

linear and spiral logic of persuasion, self-credentialing mode and self-humbling mode, and cross-cultural face-negotiation and requesting strategies

Ma

silence

Open panel

known to self and generalized others or a specific person

Other Countries

General to Specific

Other-face concern

interest in providing identity respect and support for the other persons interests or needs

Persuasion

the art of influencing someone to do something you want or to accept an idea you believe is important

Private Self

facets of the person that are potentially communicable but are not usually shared with others

Public Self

facets of the person that are readily available and are easily shared with others

Revealment

(openness) refers to the disclosure of information concerning the different facets of the public self and/or the private self

Self-credentialing

draw attention to ones abilities, accomplishments

Self disclosure

the willingness to reveal something about yourself and the willingness to pay attention to the other person's feedback about you are necessary to build a trusting intercultural relationship

Self-face concern

interest in upholding our own identities and favorable self-images

Self-humbling

verbal restraints, hesitations, and use of self-deprecation concerning ones performance

Social penetration theory

two dimensions of self-disclosure: Breadth (# of topics person is willing to share) and Depth (intimacy or emotionality shared)

Social reality

words used in language lexicon construct

Spir-Whorf theory

this explains cognitive formation

Spiral Logic

builds up relational atmosphere to go to view

Spiral persuasion style

The Spiral persuasion style ranges from the dramatic (metaphors, adjectives to reinforce point) to the Subtle (nonverbal gestures, analogies, hints to make message)

Strong

determines like time is determined by syntax of language and the classical form

Subtle style

hints, implicit analogies, subtle nonverbal gestures to dramatize the emotional impact of their message

Top CEO language

1. Brazil, 2. Netherlands, and 3. Swiss

self-disclosure and persuasion

Two concepts of Intercultural conversation process

Self-face and other-face

Two types of face concerns in conversations

Understated

displays more emotional restraint or stoicism

Unknown panel

not known to self or others

USA

specific to make case. A + B + C = D

Weak

influences as a soft form

yuan

relational karma

informal verbal style

emphasizes importance of informality, casualness, and role suspension in verbal communication

formal verbal style

emphasizes importance of upholding status-based and role-based interaction that reflects formality and large power distance

High Context

silence (ma) can make understanding possible

Western rhetorical model

silence viewed as empty pauses or ignorant lapses

Breadth

number of topics a person is willing to share

Depth

level of intimacy or emotional vulnerability shared

low-context communication

communication with an emphasis on how intention or meaning is best expressed through explicit verbal messages

low-context communicators

individuals tending to emphasize direct verbal style, animated conversational tone, informal verbal treatment, and talkativeness

high-context communication

emphasis on how intention or meaning can best be conveyed through the context (e.g., social roles or positions) and the nonverbal channels (e.g., pauses, silence, tone of voice) of the verbal message

high-context communicators

individuals tending to value indirect verbal style, understated or exaggerated conversational tone, and formal verbal treatment, emphasizing the importance of silence

linear persuasion style

style of persuasion in two forms: Factual-inductive (facts to conclusion) and the Axiomatic-deductive (principles to specific details)

The Spiral persuasion

persuasion style that ranges from the dramatic (metaphors, adjectives to reinforce point) to the Subtle (nonverbal gestures, analogies, hints to make message)

Self-face and other-face concern

two types of face concerns in conversations

Need to develop verbal sensitivity

Fundamental differences exist between LCC and HCC patterns

Need to develop verbal sensitivity

Individualists tend towards LCC, collectivists tend towards HCC

Need to develop verbal sensitivity

Individualists tend towards self-face orientation and collectivists tend towards mutual-face and other-face orientations

Need to develop verbal sensitivity

Individuals who use LCC prefer direct verbal style, matter-of-fact mode, self-credentialing enhancement and talkativeness

Need to develop verbal sensitivity

Individuals who use HCC prefer indirect verbal style, emotionally understated mode, self-humbling talk, and silence

Need to develop verbal sensitivity

Knowledge of verbal and nonverbal communication is needed to communicate across cultural and ethnic boundaries

Need to develop verbal sensitivity

Collaborative dialogue: intercultural parties try to suspend their assumptions regarding how to conduct smooth conversations

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