Criminal Justice Test 2

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Chapters 4, 5, 6

Public-Private partnership initiative in the NYPD called _____ is geared primarily toward equipping the private sector with information and training to effectively defend against terrorism.

joint-task force

Regardless of the size of the policing organization, this person has general administrative control and sets policy for all of the department's operating branches.

Police Chief

How do most municipal police departments determine promotion eligibility?

time-in-rank system

More than half of the contact that police officers engage in with civilians is spent?

for traffic-related matters

The time-in-rank system used in police departments often discourages the:

talented people (limits administrative flexibility to promote)

UCR data suggess that the average police officer makes less than one felony arrest every ___ months.

4

Major purposes of police patrol:

-deter crime by maintaining a visible police presence
-maintain a public order (peacekeeping) within the patrol area
-enable the police department to respond quickly to violations of la or other emergencies
-identify and apprehend law violators
-aid individuals and care for those who cannot help themselves
-facilitate the movement of traffic and people
-create a feeling of security in the community

Jurisdictions that encourage patrol officers to aggressively arrest and detain suspicious persons experience lower crime rates than other jurisdictions that do not practice this type of policing:

using a proactive, agressive law enforcement styple

While there are many goals of patrol, most police experts agree that the majority of police patrol efforts are devoted to:

order maintenance

What was the principle finding of the Kansas City study?

There is little evidence that police patrol deters crime

___ policing is a department policy that emphasizes stopping crimes before they occur rather than reacting to crimes that have already occured.

proactive

Based on research like the Kansas City study, what is the prevailing wisdom on preventive patrols?

there's no clear deterrent effects of preventive patrol efforts

Aggressive patrol in NYC during the 1990s has been credited with a reduction in:

crime rates

The Kansas City Gun Experiment is an example of:

a police crackdown targeting a specific type of crime

Methods for improving patrol:

-aggressive patrol
-targeting specific crimes
-making more arrests

The statement "aggressive policing increases community perception that police arrest many criminals and therefore most violators get caught" is an example of what?

an example of deterrent effect

What was a result of the Kansas City Gun Experiment?

citizens in the target area were less fearful of crime

The vice squad specializes in:

victimless crime

What is the term used to describe organized groups of detectives who deceive criminals into openly committing illegal acts or conspiring to engage in criminal activity?

sting operation

In Martin Innes' study of investigation techniques he found that police rely heavily on ____ that includes canvas of neighborhoods, interviews with friends/family and constructing victim/suspect timelines to solve a crime.

interviews and forensic evidence

Lack sufficient resources:

-unsolved cases
-length of investigation
-sources of information
-effectiveness

Community policing is often exemplified by which of the following models?

broken windows

Fundamental assumptions:

-neighborhood disorder creates fear
-neighborhoods give out crime-promoting signals
-police need citizen cooperation

Community oriented policing links police effectiveness to:

productive interaction with the community being serves

Which of the following police operations best exemplifies community oriented policing?

Example: the hiring of bilingual officers to patrol ethnic neighborhoods

What have evaluations of foot patrol programs in New Jersey and Michigan demonstrated?

citizen attitudes toward the police improved

The concept of hot spots of crime is most closely associated with which model of policing?

problem-oriented policing (POP)

What is Operation Ceasefire?

a problem-oriented policing intervention aimed at reducing youth homicide and youth firearms violence in Boston

What is the name of the police support unit that is responsible for investigating allegations of police misconduct?

Internal Affairs

Which of the following is not one of the administrative problems of community policing?

reducing police corruption

According to your text, an example of problem oriented policing would be:

developing strategies to eliminate community problems, such as street-level drug dealers, prostitution rings, and gang hangouts and must rely on local residents and private resources in order to be problem solvers

(1) Which of the following officers was part of the watch system of policing that thrived in 13th century England?

Watchmen, Constable, and Shire Reeve

The Pledge System was where people were grouped in families of 10 called _____ were entrusted with policing their own minor problems.

Tithing

What office was created in 1326 under the watch system of policing to assist the shire reeve in controlling the county?

Justice of the Peace

What was the name of the form of organized private police that patrolled 18th century England?

Thief Takers

English police officers are known as bobbies because:

after creator, Sir Robert Peel

Henry Fielding operated his own monied police that attempted to clean up earlier policing efforts by deciding which cases to investigate and which streets to protect, they were called:

Bow Street Runners

Which American city created the first formal U.S. police department?

Boston

The first technological breakthrough in policing came in the following area:

communications

In early US policing which area of the country encourage individual initiative and offered rewards for the capture of felons and law breakers?

the western territories

What was one of August Vollmer's greatest contributions to police professionalism?

He instituted university training for young officers and helped develop the School of Criminology at the University of California at Berkelery

What federal program supported innovative research on police work and advanced training for police officers during the 1970s?

the Law Enforcement Assistance Administration (LEAA)

Which federal agency has reformulated its priorities, making protection from terrorism the number one goal?

Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)

Which federal law enforcement agency has unlimited jurisdiction?

none do

What federal agency is responsible for the transportation of federal prisoners?

U.S. Marshals Service

Since September 11, 2001, which agency is considered the main federal investigative agency for terrorism?

Department of Homeland Security (DHS) (or custom border patrol, CBD?)

Which law enforcement agency is responsible for fugitive investigations?

U.S. Marshals Service

What federal agency is responsible for fugitive investigations?

U.S. Marshals Service

Customs and Border Protection is primarily responsible for America's borders and points of entry but also encompasses what other area instrumental in that protection?

involved in checks in farms, ranches, traffic and transportation and traffic observation, city patrol, administrative, intelligence, and anti-smuggling activities

Which of the following is a branch of the Department of Homeland Security?

Custom Border Protection and Secret Services

Which state had the earliest example of state police?

Texas

Roughly how many metropolitan police agencies employ more than 1,000 sworn officers?

70

Roughly how many metropolitan police agencies employ just one sworn officer?

650

Police sketch artists and mugbooks are being replaced with what type of modern technology?

Computerized imaging/software

What term is used to describe the use of computer software to identify geographic "hot spots" where a majority of predatory crimes are concentrated?

Computer mapping/ Crime mapping

DNA profiling gained national attention because of the _____ trial.

O.J. Simpson trial

AFIS is a(n):

computerized automated fingerprint identification system

Computerized mathematical models of a suspect's face constructed from minimal information are called:

computerized imaging systems/genetic algorithims

A DNA match indicates a four billion-to-___ chance that the suspect is the offender

1

(3) What term is used to describe the phenomena where black officers must deal with the expectation that they will give members of their own race a break, while at the same time they experience overt racism from their police colleagues?

double marginality

Over the years, minority officers seem to be as self assured as white officers, regardless of feeling _____ rates of job related stress and strain stemming from general police stressors

similar

What city was the first to hire and award the title of police officer to a woman in 1910?

Los Angeles

Surveys of male officers show that ____ (of) officers tend to view policing as a masculine profession and do not think women can handle the physical requirements of the job

many

Education and the police:

-1/3 of police agencies require some type of college requirement
-more than 3x the number in 1990
-half of the departments surveyed expressed a preference for criminal justice majors

The blue curtain is a term used to describe:

the secretive insulated police culture that isolates officers from the rest of society

Core beliefs at the heart of the police culture (6):

-police are the only real crime fighters
-no one else understands the real nature of police work
-loyalty to colleagues counts above everything else
-it is impossible to win the war against crime without bending the rules
-members of the public are basically unsupportive and unreasonably demanding
-patrol work is the pits

Which of the following traits is said to be found on all levels of policing?

cynicism

an officer approaches a group of teenagers drinking beer, she checks everyone's ID and arrests all who are underage. this example best typifies which officer style?

the Law Enforcer

An officer approaches a group of teenagers standing in a parking lot, drinking beer. She checks them for gang symbols and calls into the station to ascertain if any of them have active warrants. This officer typifies which officer style?

the Crime Fighter

Which officer's style involves acting as problem solvers and is therefore well suited for community policing?

the Social Agent

Which style of policing prefers to ignore or treat informally issues of concern, unless the social or political order of being jeopardized?

the Social Agent

Which policing style utilizes the least amount of discretion?

the Law Enforcer

Extralegal discretionary factors:

-age, gender, racial characteristics, income

Defined as the ability to monitor one's own and others feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide ones thinking and actions is the concept of?

emotional intelligence

Stress reduction programs:

-stress training (diet information, biofeedback, relaxation and medication, and exercise)
-stress management
-wellness programming

Court decisions that limit police discretion are an example of a(n):

external stressor

The inconvenience and physical strains that come from rotating shift work are examples of:

duty stressors

What pattern does research reveal regarding officers' involvement in use-of-force incidents?

-only a small proportion of officers are continually involved in use-of-force incidents
-little evidence these are racially motivated
-problem officers tend to be young and inexperienced members of the force

The greatest factor in controlling the use of unwarranted police brutality is/are?

threat of civil judgment against individual officers

Justification of the use of deadly force via the "fleeing felon" rule can be traced to:

English Common Law

Which of the following is not commonly identified as a factor related to police shootings?

poverty levels

What U.S. Supreme court case deemed the use of deadly force against an unarmed and non-dangerous fleeing felon an illegal seizure under the Fourth Amendment?

Tennessee v. Garner

What U.S. Supreme Court decision set forth the "reasonable officer" standard for police use of deadly force?

Graham v. Connor

What is the lowest level of reasonable officer response mapped out in the Federal Law Enforcement training Center's use-of-force model?

verbal commands

What was the name of the famous commission that investigated corruption in NYC in the 1970s?

Knapp Commission

what is the term used to describe those that aggressively misuse police power for personal gain by demanding bribes, threatening legal action, or cooperating with criminals?

meat eaters

What is the term used to describe those police officers that accept payoffs when their everyday duties place them in a position to be solicited by the public?

grass eaters

When police routinely use excessive force against suspects, it is considered:

abuse of power

The Mollen Commission is an example of what type of effort to control police corruption?

outside review boards or special presecutors

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