the process of adjusting different elements of the vocal tract to shape the sounds of speech.
elements of the vocal tract that are not moveable; teeth, hard palate, and nasal bones.
elements of the vocal tract that are moveable; lips, tongue, soft palate, pharynx walls, and buccae.
facial muscles; called mimetic because they convey meaning in speech through "mimes" and also function to shape the oral and nasal cavities.
sharp line between lip and face
substance that makes the skin of the lips transparent
functions of the lips
touch sensation, temperature sensation, sphincter to close mouth.
articulators for labial consonants
lips control airflow for some consonants.
external epithelium of cheeks
stratified squamous epithelium, keratinized
determined by pigments and blood flow
gives red or flushed appearance
internal epithelium of cheeks
stratified squamous epithelium, mucous
space between cheek and gums
in "U" shaped area. Bordered by dental arches.
ridges on surface of hard palate
anterior faucial pillar
membrane that sperates the oral cavity from the pharynx; palatoglossus muscle
posterior faucial pillar
a membrane posterior to palatine tonsils; palatopharyngeus muscle
secrete saliva to protect teeth and moisten oral cavity.
inner surface of lips
5 glands whose ducts open opposite the last molars.
glands that open opposite the last molar.
gland located under the tongue
glands located lateral below the mandible
connection between lips and gums
connects the tongue to the floor of the oral cavity
functions of lingual frenulum
mastication (chewing), deglutition (swallowing), and sense of taste.
tip of tongue
sides of tongue
anterior sides and tip
posterior of tongue
region above gum line
at the gumline (exposed portion)
portion in the socket. Contained in alveolar process
hard outer covering (white)
inner layer of tooth (brown)
contains blood vessels and nerves
substance that anchors the tooth to the bone.
flat, cutting/biting teeth
conical, stabbing teeth
premolars and molars
flat surfaces, grinding
proper alignment of upper and lower teeth
lower jaw reclusive
lower jaw protrusive
number of each type of tooth are present
faces the midline
faces away from midline
faces the cheek
known as juvenification; the retention of juvenile characteristics in an adult
cause wrinkles in the face. Convey emotion and articulation.
madubular fossa (temporal bone)+madibular condyle(mandible)
protrude lower jaw
retract lower jaw
circular action of the lower jaw (grinding action)
superior movement of the lower jaw
inferior movement of the lower jaw
connective tissue lining of the joint forming upper and lower joint cavities
clear, thick, viscous fluid that lubricates the joint (prevents contact between bones)
air spaces that develop during puberty; lighten bone, PCCE/mucous. Frontal, Maxillary, Spenoid, Ethmoid, Palatine(occasionally)
space between the cheek and gums
space bordered by the teeth to the 1st faucial pillar
space between the anterior and posterior nares (chocine); vestibule is anterior-most portion
space that extends from the internal nares to the esophagus, common space shared by digestive and respiratory systems
sphincter between mouth and external environment
subdivide the mouth into oral cavity and buccal cavity
(anterior nares)- exterior openings to the nose
(posterior nares)-internal openings from the nasl cavity to the nasopharynx
soft palate that is a sphincter between the nasopharynx and oropharynx
membrane that marks the boundary of the oropharynx and laryngopharynx
olfactory nerve endings
columnar epithelium in the olfactory portion of the superior nasal cavity
space between internal nares and soft palate
passageway that connects the nasopharynx and middle ear
lymphiod tissue in the roof of the masopharynx, paryngeal tonsil
space between soft palate and epiglottis
lymphoid tissue between the anterior and posterior faucial pillars
space between the epiglottis and esophagus
stretch receptors in the esophagus activate smooth muscle that squeezes food to stomach. involuntary phase
buccal (oral) phase
tongue propels food from te oral cavity to the pharynx. voluntray phase
stretch receptors in the pharynx are stimulated and signal the swallowing center to stimulate pharyngeal muscles. Pharyngeal muscles contract and propel food to the esophagus. involuntary phase
raise larynx+constrict pharynx
lower larynx+dilate pharynx
skeletal muscle covered by mucous membrane; also known as velum
deeply concave roof of the oral cavity
opening between the nasopharynx and oropharynx
lymphatic tissue formed by connective tissue covering filled with lymphocytes; helps with immunity againest pathogens at important entry points for infections.
pharngeal tonsil (adenoids)
tonsil located posterior to the internal nares
located around the opening to the auditory (eustachian) tube
located between the anterior and posterior faucial pillars. tonsilar fascia
located at the root of the tongue
refining motor control in muscle movements for tongue placement, reaching for toys, etc.
Nasal Cavity Epithelium
Vestibule- STSE with mucous and superior respiratory epithelium PCCE