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Labeling (2)

Social reaction theory is also commonly called _______ theory.
According to ________, society creates deviance through a system of social control agencies that designate certain individuals as delinquent, thereby stigmatizing youths and encouraging them to accept this negative personal identity.

Symbolic interaction

The roots of social reaction theory can be found in a branch of sociology known as __________.

Conflict

________ theory is oriented toward the economic and political interests of those in power.

Degradation ceremonies

___________: the public identity of an offender is transformed in a solemn process during which the targeted person is thrust outside the social mainstream.

Primary

_______ deviance involves norm violations or crimes that have very little influence on the actor and can be quickly forgotten.

self-fulfulling prophecy

Deviant behavior patterns that are a response to an earlier labeling experience are known as __________.

secret deviants

According to Becker, those kids who continually break rules but are able to avoid labeling are called ___________.

Secondary

_______ deviance occurs when a deviant event comes to the attention of significant others or social control agents who apply a negative label.

a degradation ceremony

Going to court and being scolded by a judge would be an example of ____________.

critical

Social conflict theory is also called ______ theory.

Social conflict

____________ theory emphasizes that those with money and power succeed in shaping the law to meet their needs and maintain their interests.

Conflict

______ theorists view delinquency as a normal response to the conditions created by capitalism.

restorative justice

Using humanistic, nonpunitive strategies to right wrongs and restore social harmony is referred to as ___________.

deinstitutionalization

Alternative community-based sanctions substituted for state training school is a policy known as _______________.

Parental labeling

_____________ is extremely damaging because it may cause adolescents to seek deviant peers whose behavior amplifies the effect of the labeling.

Family group conferencing

___________ involves the victim and offender along with the family, friends, and key supporters of both in deciding the resolution of the delinquent act.

reintegrative shaming

Techniques used to allow offenders to understand and recognize their wrongdoing and shame themselves are referred to as ______________.

True

The reassessment of a person's past to fit a generalized label is referred to as retrospective reading.

True

To drive home the point that the youthful suspect is an outcast who should be shunned by society, the justice system relies on degradation ceremony.

True

John Braithwaite introduced the concept of reintegrative shaming,

True

Secondary deviance occurs when a deviant event comes to the attention of significant others or social control agents who apply a negative label.

False

Labeling theory explains how sustained delinquent behavior stems from destructive peer relationships.

Life course Theory

The view that criminality is a dynamic process, influenced by social experiences as well as individual characteristics is called ____________

authority conflict pathway

The _______ to delinquent deviance begins at an early age with stubborn behvior, which leads to defiance and then to authority avoidance.

the overt pathway

The conduit to a delinquent career that begins with minor aggression, leads to physical fighting, and eventually escalates to violent delinquency is called ____________.

life-course persister

If an offender's delinquent career continues well into adulthood, the offender is referred to as a/an ___________.

social capital

When a person has positive relations with individuals and institutions, as in a successful marriage or career, that support is sometimes referred to as _____________.

integtrated

________ theories incorporate social, personal, and developmental factors into complex explanations of human behavior.

latent trait

Defective intelligence, impulsive personality, genetic abnormalities, and the physical chemical functioning of the brain are all examples of a _____________.

level of self-control

Gottfredson and Hirschi attribute the tendency to commit delinquent acts to a person's ________.

inadequate child-rearing practices

Gottfredson and Hirschi traced the root cause of poor self-control to ___________.

Developmental

_______ theory looks at the onset, continuity, and termination of a delinquent career.

masculinity hypothesis

The view that women who commit crime have biological and psychological traits similar to those of men is called the __________.

exploitation

According to the critical feminist, ________ triggers the onset of female delinquent and deviant behavior.

Psychodynamic

_________ theorists suggest that girls are socialized to be passive, which helps explain their low crime rate.

social roles

Liberal feminism asserts that females are less delinquent than males because their _________ provide them with fewer opportunities to commit crimes.

knife

The typical female usually kills with a ___________.

chivalry hypothesis

The _______ is the view that lower female crime an delinquency rates are a reflectoin of the leniency with which police treat female offenders.

dysfunctional

Investigators continue to support the view that female delinquents have more _________ home lives than male offenders.

testosterone

In general, females who have higher levels of _________ are more likely to engage stereotypical male behaviors.

family interaction

The socialization approach holds that ______ is the key to understanding female delinquency.

criminality

Females display more self-control than males, a factor that has been related to ___________.

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