psychology 312: test 3

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The ways in which an individual thinks about and characterizes himself or herself is referred to as:

self-conception

In comparison with the self-concepts of young children, adolescent self-concepts tend to be more:

abstract

How an individual feels about himself or herself is referred to as:

self-esteem

Under what circumstances is an adolescent most likely to behave in an inauthentic (false self) manner?

with a romantic interest

The type of adolescent who would present their false-self behavior to the greatest degree would include all of the following, except those who

report less emotional support from parents

Which of the following personality traits is not one of the "Big Five"?

intelligence

Delinquent adolescents are more likely than their peers to score high on which of the Big Five personality dimensions?

extraversion

What trend does the stability of self-esteem show over time between childhood and early adulthood?

Self-esteem tends to become increasingly more stable over time

Changes in self-perceptions (whether positive or negative) are most likely to occur during:

early adolescence

Which aspect of self-image refers to the degree to which an adolescent worries about their self-image?

self-consciousness

Which term does the sociologist Morris Rosenberg use to describe our feelings about ourselves that shift and fluctuate rapidly from moment to moment?

barometric self-esteem

An adolescent would be more likely to readily dismiss transient feelings of insecurity as having more to do with the situation than with himself if he had higher levels of:

baseline self-esteem.

The adolescent with the highest baseline self-esteem would most likely not be:

the last born, or the baby of the family

Compared to young adolescents with stable self-images, young adolescents with the most volatile self-image report having:

higher levels of psychosomatic symptoms

Most researchers today believe that adolescents evaluate themselves primarily:

on the basis of several distinct dimensions, including academics, athletics, appearance, and social relationships.

Which one of the following best describes the relationship between the broad domains of self-esteem? An adolescent who has high:

levels of self-esteem in one distinct dimension may not necessarily have high levels of self-esteem in another.

Which aspect of self-esteem contributes most to an adolescent's overall self-image?

physical appearance

Research suggests that how an adolescent feels about his or her appearance is the most important predictor of overall self-esteem. Interestingly, what dimension is reported by adolescents themselves as the least important predictor of their own global self-esteem?

physical appearance

Compared to early adolescent white boys, early adolescent white girls:

are more likely to say negative things about themselves.

African-American girls' overall self-esteem:

is higher than both white and Hispanic-American girls

Compared to African-American adolescent girls, Hispanic-American adolescent girls are thought to have lower overall self-esteem due to all of the following, except:

a stronger sense of ethnic identity among Hispanic Americans.

Academic success is most likely to influence the self-esteem of adolescents who are:

Asian American

Adolescents most likely to show more behavioral problems and poorer school achievement are those who tend to derive their self-esteem from:

their peers

Research on the connection between academic success and high self-esteem in adolescence suggests that:

academic success leads to high self-esteem

The term used to describe adolescents who identify with more than one racial group is:

biracial

Which of the following is not true of gender socialization in adolescence?

Feminine boys are better adjusted and accepted by peers than masculine girls

In Erikson's theory of development, people move through eight stages of psychosocial development by resolving the psychosocial crises of each stage. What does Erikson mean by the successful resolution of a particular stage?

coming through the crisis more positively than negatively

According to Erikson, the developmental stage that must be successfully resolved during the adolescent years is:

identity vs. identity diffusion

According to Erikson, psychosocial moratorium refers to the need of adolescents to:

be given time out from substantial responsibilities and obligations to foster self-discovery

According to Erikson's theory, problems in identity development characterized by an incoherent, disjointed, incomplete sense of self is called:

identity diffusion

When an adolescent bypasses the period of exploration and experimentation that precedes the establishment of a healthy sense of identity, and prematurely commits themselves to a certain identity the adolescent may have be experiencing:

identity foreclosure

Marcia developed a scheme for determining an adolescent's identity status by assigning individuals to one of four categories. An adolescent who has established a coherent sense of identity is assigned to the category of:

identity achievement.

The process through which parents attempt to teach their children about their ethnic identity and the special experiences they may encounter in the broader society because of their ethnic identity is:

racial socialization.

The psychologist Jean Phinney and her colleagues refer to the process in which adolescents try to adopt the majority culture's norms and standards while rejecting those of their own group as:

assimilation.

Which of Phinney's alternative orientations to ethnic identity appears to be linked with the healthiest psychosocial development?

biculturalism

Which psychosocial term refers to individuals' capacity to behave on their own?

autonomy

In which area of functioning are adolescents likely to be the least independent?

economic

Which developmental theorist proposed that autonomy is the central issue of toddlerhood?

Erik Erikson

According to psychoanalytic theorists such as Anna Freud, the process by which the adolescent achieves emotional autonomy by severing emotional ties with parents is known as:

detachment

Independence that is specifically related to changes in close relationships, especially with parents, is known as:

physical autonomy

The type of autonomy that involves making one's own decisions and following through with them is known as:

behavioral autonomy

According to psychoanalytic thinkers such as Anna Freud, each of the following accurately describes the process of detachment, except:

conflict between an adolescent and his or her parents is a sign of immaturity.

Examination of Anna Freud's theories by researchers has led to the conclusion that:

in contrast to Freud's ideas, most families get along well during the adolescent years.

Unlike psychoanalytic theories that emphasized detachment, emotional autonomy during adolescence is currently thought to:

involve a transformation in family relationships rather than a breaking off of family ties.

The gradual, progressive sharpening of one's sense of self as autonomous, competent, and separate from one's parents is known as:

individuation

Which one of the following is not consistent with the process of individuation?

individuation involves increased family stress and turmoil

The process of individuation, in part, involves the realization that parents sometimes make mistakes, which is known as:

deidealization

The process of developing autonomy for adolescents whose parents have divorced differs in that the adolescent:

tends to begin the process of individuation somewhat earlier.

Difficulties in the process of individuation would most likely arise when:

adolescents push for independence before parents are willing to grant it.

Autonomous adolescents tend to report that they:

are close to their parents.

Rebellion, negativism, and excessive involvement in the peer group are more common among:

psychologically immature adolescents.

Adolescents tend to have less difficulty individuating from parents who:

use enabling behavior.

Psychologists have concluded that emotional autonomy develops best when the parents:

use a lot of enabling and little constraining behavior.

Parents who see their child's increasing emotional independence as rebellious or disrespectful most likely use the parenting style known as:

authoritarian

The statement below that corrects a widely held misconception about adolescent development and autonomy is:

excessive adherence to the pressures of one's friends is no more autonomous than is excessive adherence to the pressures of one's parents.

Adolescents are more likely to conform to their peers' than their parents' opinions regarding which of the following?

choices among leisure activities

Adolescents are more likely to be influenced by their parents' opinions regarding which of the following?

occupational plans

Susceptibility to peer pressure has been found to peak around the age of:

14

The case of the Central Park jogger mugging in which it was subsequently discovered that the juveniles accused of the crime gave false confessions to police is an example of:

conformity to peer pressure

The heightened susceptibility to peer pressure of individuals around the age of 14 is most often seen when the behavior in question is:

antisocial behavior

Susceptibility to peer pressure has been shown to:

increase until middle adolescence and then decrease.

Political thinking in adolescence changes in all of the following ways, except:

it becomes more conservative.

The percentage of college freshmen who believe it is important to keep up with political affairs is:

36%

According to Fuligni and Eccles, adolescents who are less peer-oriented than other adolescents are most likely to have been raised by parents utilizing what parenting style?

authoritarian

Changes in the adolescent's conceptions of moral, political, ideological, and religious issues involves the development of:

value autonomy

There is some evidence that the development of __________ occurs in later adolescence.

value autonomy

The type of moral reasoning in Kohlberg's theory oriented toward the consequences that follow behavior is called:

preconventional reasoning

Research has found that the most rare form of moral reasoning in Kohlberg's framework, in which society's rules and conventions are seen as relative and subjective rather than as absolute and definitive, is known as:

postconventional reasoning

The moral perspective advocated by Carol Gilligan that involves attention to others and responsiveness to human need is known as the:

care orientation

Intimate relationships involve all of the following except:

sexual involvement

Young children's conceptions of friendship are more focused on ____ than the conceptions of friendship of older children and adolescents.

shared activity

Which of the following are related to the development of intimacy during adolescence?

advances in social cognition

According to Sullivan's theory of interpersonal development, different interpersonal needs surface that lead either to:

security or anxiety

Which developmental theorist postulated that throughout childhood and adolescence the human being strives to meet various interpersonal needs?

Harry Stack Sullivan

When does the need for intimacy with opposite-sex peers first emerge, in Sullivan's theoretical perspective?

early adolescence

Sullivan's view of development suggests that the development of intimacy ______ the development of identity.

comes before

According to Erikson, once an individual has achieved a sense of who he or she is then that person is ready to progress to the next psychosocial stage known as:

intimacy vs. isolation.

Erikson believed that in a truly intimate relationship:

the individuals' identities become fused in such a way that neither person's identity is lost.

Erikson believed that adolescents in romantic relationships who have yet to establish their sense of identities often display a sort of:

pseudointimacy

Some writers have argued that __________'s theoretical perspective involving the relationship between intimacy and identity best describes male development.

Erikson

Today, the dominant psychological framework within which researchers study intimacy in adolescence is the:

attachment perspective.

A strong and enduring emotional bond is indicative of:

attachment

Which type of attachment is characterized by ambivalence?

anxious-resistant attachment

Which theoretical perspective looks at individuals' internal working models about human relationships?

attachment perspective

Infants with which type of attachment are thought by some to be more likely to develop psychological and social problems during childhood and adolescence, including poor peer relationships?

anxious attachment

Which of the following did both Sullivan and Erikson's theories have in common?

the idea that interpersonal development is cumulative over time

During middle adolescence, females are afraid of ________ more than males in their close relationships.

rejection

Over the course of adolescence, individuals:

are more likely to understand how their friends feel.

As individuals move from childhood to adolescence, and from adolescence into young adulthood, they become:

more likely to end their disagreements by negotiation.

Negotiation is most common in the context of which type of relationship?

romantic partners

Which of the following statements regarding gender differences in intimacy is false?

females have more intimate knowledge about their friends than males

Which of the following descriptions about boy's friendships is inaccurate?

boy's conflicts with their friends are typically resolved when one friend apologizes

Homophobia is the fear of:

men

Intimacy between parents and adolescents tends to:

decrease until midadolescence and then increase.

With respect to adolescents' intimacy with parents, in which of the following regions have adolescents reported the greatest degree of cohesion with the mother?

Europe

Studies of adolescents changing schools have found that support from ________ is most predictive of low psychological distress.

peers and parents

During preadolescence, the single most important determinant of friendship is:

gender

With the onset of cross-sex intimacy in adolescence, what typically happens to same-sex friendships?

cross-sex friendships do not replace existing same-sex friendships; they are added to existing same-sex friendships

Which one of the following would be uncharacteristic of an adolescent who begins dating earlier than other adolescents?

he comes from two-parent home

The infatuation phase of dating is characterized by:

learning about oneself.

The term "sexual-minority youth" refers to:

adolescents who are not exclusively heterosexual.

Adolescent girls who begin dating seriously at an earlier age than their peers have been found to be characterized by each of the following except ________ than their peers.

they are more oriented toward achievement

Which one of the following is not characteristic of adolescent girls who do not date at all?

they are more popular than their dating peers

Societies that forbid sexual activity among the young until a rite of passage has been achieved are called:

restrictive societies.

The way that sexual socialization is carried out in contemporary American culture is best categorized as:

semi-restrictive.

The process by which adolescents and children are exposed to and educated about sexuality is known as:

sexual socialization.

Which researcher argued that the sexual socialization of youngsters in many traditional societies was a calm and nonstressful process in societies in which sexual experimentation was treated openly?

Ruth Benedict

An example of a permissive society in regard to sexuality is:

the Trobriand Islands.

The sexual attitudes and behavior of American adolescents are best described by the term:

serial monogamy.

Most adolescents' first experience with sex falls into the category of:

autoerotic sexuality.

Autoerotic behavior refers to sexual activity that:

is experienced alone.

The developmental progression of sexual behaviors, from less intimate to more intimate:

has not changed much over the past half-century.

By the end of 10th grade, about ___ of American adolescents have had heterosexual vaginal intercourse.

40%

Which adolescent is most likely to engage in early sexual activity?

an African-American adolescent

Which age group of females is most likely to report that their first intercourse was against their will or unwanted?

13 and younger

The age of first intercourse for females has _____ over the last 30 years.

decreased

For most American adolescents, sexual involvement does not involve:

promiscuity

What is the association between sexual activity in adolescence that occurs at the normative age, and the onset of psychological disturbance? With sexual activity, the risk of mental issues:

is not associated with increased risk for mental problems.

Sexual activity in adolescence that occurs before age 16 has been found to be associated with a:

greater risk of experimentation with drugs and alcohol.

An adolescent who is at greatest risk for sexual activity with multiple sexual partners and sexually transmitted disease is one who has:

neither extracurricular involvement nor parental monitoring after school.

Numerous studies show that ________ are the primary influence on adolescent girls' involvement in sexual intercourse.

social factors

The parenting style that is least likely to result in an adolescents' involvement in high risk sexual activity is the:

authoritative style...3.

With which family member(s) are teenagers most likely to talk about sex?

mother

The weakest predictor of adolescent sexual involvement is whether or not the adolescent:

has had communications about sex with his or her parents.

Which one of the following is representative of the early sexual experiences of adolescent males?

boys are more likely than girls to mention sexual arousal as a reason for having sex

The early sexual experiences of males are often interpreted in terms of:

recreation

What was the result of the study in which 15,000 adolescents were studied to determine whether or not the same risk factors for sexual activity for white adolescents also hold for African-American and Hispanic-American youth?

risk factors for whites are the same as those for Hispanics and African Americans

The extent to which someone is oriented toward heterosexual activity, homosexual activity, or both is known as their:

sexual orientation.

Which of the following best illustrates the relationship between sexual orientation and sex-role behavior?

both heterosexual and gay men may behave in masculine, feminine, or both masculine and feminine ways because sexual orientation is unrelated to sex-role behavior

How is homosexuality regarded by mental health experts?

It is one of several types of sexual orientations, such as heterosexual or bisexual.

A nationally representative sample of middle and high school youngsters found that over ____ of the female students had received unwanted sexual attention while in school.

80%

Sexual victimization (e.g., date rape) is most likely to be experienced by which of the following adolescents?

a lower-class female adolescent

Which one of the following is clearly the least effective method of contraception used by American adolescents?

withdrawal method

The most popular form of contraceptive used by close to 60% of sexually active teenage couples is:

the condom.

Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) are not caused by:

condoms

The most important risk factor for contracting HIV among adolescents is whether they:

have used drugs, or have had multiple sex partners, or have been sexually abused.

Which of the following countries has the highest teen pregnancy rate in the industrialized world?

the United States

What percentage of American female adolescents experience pregnancy by the age of 20?

33%

Which of the following is defined as the development of motives, capabilities, interests, and behavior that have to do with performance in evaluative situations?

achievement

The psychological factor that is a complementary motive to the need for achievement, and which is often manifested in feelings of anxiety during evaluative situations is:

fear of failure

Fear of failure is likely to develop in a child raised with a parenting style that:

sets unrealistically high standards and expectations.

The extent to which an individual strives for success is known as:

need for achievement.

Many students are considered to be ________ because their grades are far lower than one would expect based on their intellectual ability.

underachievers

Intrinsically motivated youngsters tend to work hard to:

master the material

The measured difference in math ability between male and female adolescents in the United States is:

very slight

Having confidence in one's intellectual ability is known as:

self efficacy

When youngsters attribute their failure to a lack of effort, they are likely to ________ in subsequent tasks.

work harder

Students who are led to believe that their efforts will ultimately have no impact on the grade they earn, such as being told they are stupid or that the work is too difficult for them, may develop what psychologists call:

learned helplessness

The most important influence on educational achievement is:

home environment

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