Foreign policy adopted by the U.S. at the start of W.W. I. to stay out of foreign affairs.
Germany used U-boats to challenge the British blockade by announcing that the submarines would be used against any ships attempting to enter the "war zone" (near the British Isles).
A British passenger liner that was torpedoed and sunken on May 7, 1915 by Germany, with most passengers drowning, including 128 Americans. It was the first major crisis against U.S. neutrality and Wilson responded by warning Germany that it would be held to "strict accountability" if it continued to sink unarmed ships.
Germany promised not to sink merchant or passenger ships without giving due warning
war-time alliance between Great Britain and France, and other nations against the Central Powers. The United States later joined by sending supplies to the British and the French, and eventually ending most trade with Germany.
war-time alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary and other nations opposing the Allies
The British government supplied the U.S. newspapers and magazines with the war news during the war, and tried to influence U.S. public opinion by providing many stories about German soldiers committing atrocities in Belgium and the German-occupied part of eastern France.
Greater defense expenditures advocated by eastern Republicans after the war in Europe broke out; it was a National Security League led effort to promote preparedness and to extend direct US aid to the Allies, if needed, which President Wilson later complied to with the expansion of the armed forces.
first woman to be elected into Congress and vehemently against "preparedness" and entering the war
President Wilson's chief foreign policy adviser from Texas who was sent to London, Paris, and Berlin to negotiate a peace settlement. The plan did not work so Wilson then tried to achieve "peace without victory"
On March 1, 1917, US newspapers carried news that a telegram was intercepted by British intelligence in which German foreign minister Arthur Zimmerman proposed that Mexico ally itself with Germany in return for Germany's pledge to help Mexico recover lost territories in the South of the US; this telegram aroused nationalist anger and convinced Wilson that Germany fully expected war with the US
Wilson's platform was based on moral diplomacy and the triumph of democracy, and it bothered him that one of the Allied powers was Russia, led by an autocratic czar. On March 15,1917, Russian revolutionaries overthrew the czar's government and proclaimed a republic, thus removing the barrier to U.S. participation in the war.
The United States struggled to switch towards a wartime economy in 1917
Progressive journalist who took over a propaganda agency called the Committee on Public Information, which enlisted the voluntary services of artists, writers, vaudeville performers, and movie starts to depict the heroism of the "boys" (US soldiers) and the villainy of the Kaiser through films, posters, pamphlets, and volunteer speakers. Increased the war hysteria and patriotic enthusiasm and caused nativist groups to emerge.
Wilson created war agencies that would be staffed by volunteers in order for America to contribute supplies to the Allies. Agencies included the: War Industries Board, Food Administration, Fuel Administration, and National War Labor Board.
Espionage Act (1917)
provided for imprisonment of up to 20 years for people who either tried to incite rebellion in the armed forces or obstruct the operation of the draft
Sedition Act (1918)
prohibited anyone from making "disloyal" or "abusive" remarks towards the US government
Schenck v. United States
Supreme Court case involving a man who had been imprisoned for distributing pamphlets against the draft. The Court used it to uphold the constitutionality of the Espionage Act
Selective Service Act
System devised by Secretary of War Newton Baker as a democratic method for ensuring that all groups in a population would be called into service; 2.8 million men were selected by lottery
Communist group that led the 2nd revolution in Russia and took them out of the war effort
American Expeditionary Force
Americans commanded by General John J. Pershing that were used to plug weaknesses in the French and British lines but the AEF later in 1918 assumed responsibility for one segment of the Western front
detailed list of President Wilson's war aims in 1918 to Congress including:
-recognition of freedom of the seas
-end to practice of making secret treaties
-reduction of national armaments
-impartial adjustment of colonial claims
-self-determination for the various nationalities within the Austro-Hungarian empire
-League of Nations (most valued by Wilson)
Treaty of Versailles
peace conference in which all of the allies in the war participated and it was the first time an American president traveled abroad for a diplomatic conference. The United States never ratified the Treaty.
the other heads of state at Versailles who wanted revenge on Germany in the form of indemnities and territory. David Lloyd George of GB, Georges Clemenceau of France and Vittorio Orlando of Italy met up with President Wilson to discuss the peace terms
David Lloyd George
Represented Great Britain at Versailles and was one of the Big Four. Wanted revenge against Germany and compensation in the form of indemnities and territory
Represented France at Versailles and was one of the Big Four. Wanted revenge against Germany and compensation in the form of indemnities and territory
Represented Italy at Versailles and was one of the Big Four. Wanted revenge against Germany and compensation in the form of indemnities and territory
League of Nations
International peacekeeping organization in which Article X of the charter of the league said that each member nation must stand ready to protect the independence and territorial integrity of the other nations. It was President Wilson's most advocated idea of his Fourteen Points that he would not compromise upon.
Henry Cabot Lodge
hostile leading Senate Republican against the Treaty of Versailles. He led the reservationist faction of the Senate.
faction of the Republican Senators led by Lodge that said they could accept the League of Nations if reservations were added to the charter; however, Wilson was not willing to compromise
faction made up of about 12 Republican Senators who could not accept US member in the League of Nations no matter how the covenant was worded
growing fear of socialism fueled by Communist takeover in Russia and labor unrest at home; anti-communist hysteria became the Red Scare.
series of unexplained bombings led Attorney General A. Mitchell Palmer to establish a special officer under J. Edgar Hoover to gather information on radicals. He also ordered mass arrests of anarchists, socialists and labor agitators
an anarchist known for her political activism, writing and speeches; she was deported back to Russia
Strikes; race riots
Seatle, Boston and US Steel Strikes turned public opinion against labor unions; African American migration to north increased racial tensions and in St. Louis and Chicago, lynching and racial prejudice by Whites increased due to prejudice and fears of the returning African American soldiers