Chapter 16 - Endocrine System

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pituitary gland or hypophysis cerebri

approximately the size of a pea and located at the base of the brain

anterior lobe or adenohypophysis

produces and secretes the following hormones: growth hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, gonadotropic hormone

growth hormone (GH)

regulates the growth of the body

adrenocoticotropic hormone (ACTH)

stimulates the adrenal cortex

thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)

stimulates the thyroid gland

gonadotropic hormones

affect the male and female reproductive systems

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH)

regulate development, growth, and function of the ovaries and testes

prolactin or lactogenic hormone (PRL)

promotes development of glandular tissue during pregnancy and produces milk after birth of an infant

posterior lobe or neurohypophysis

stores and releases antidiuretic hormone and oxytocin

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

stimulates the kidney to reabsorb water

oxytocin

stimulates uterine contractions during labor and postpartum

hypothalamus

located near the pituitary gland in the brain

thyroid gland

largest endocrine gland.

parathyroid glands

four small bodies lying directly behind the thyroid. Parathyroid hormone (PTH), the hormone produced by the glands, helps maintain the level of calcium in the blood

islets of Langerhans

clusters of endocrine tissue found throughout the pancreas, made up of different cell types that secrete various hormones, including insulin and glucagon. Nonendocrine cells found throughout the pancreas produce enzymes that facilitate digestion

adrenal glands or suprarenals

paired glands, one of which is located above each kidney. The outer portion is called the adrenal cortex, and the inner portion is called the adrenal medulla

cortisol

secreted by the adrenal cortex. It aids the body during stress by increasing glucose levels to provide energy (also called hydrocortisone)

epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noadrenaline)

secreted by the adrenal medulla. These hormones help the body to deal with stress by increasing the blood pressure, heartbeat, and respirations

aden/o

gland

adren/o, adrenal/o

adrenal glands

cortic/o

cortex (the outer layer of a body organ)

andocrin/o

endocrine

parathyroid/o

parathyroid glands

pituitar/o

pituitary glands

thyroid/o, thyr/o

thyroid gland

acr/o

extremities, height

calc/i

calcium

dips/o

thirst

kal/i

potassium

natr/o

sodium

-drome

run, running

acromegaly

enlargement of the extremities (and bones of the face, hands, and feet caused by excessive production of the growth hormone by pituitary gland after puberty)

adenitis

inflammation of the gland

adenomegaly

enlargement of the gland

adenosis

abnormal condition of a gland

adrenalitis

inflammation of the adrenal glands

adrenomegaly

enlargement (of one or both) of the adrenal glands

hypercalcemia

excessive calcium in the blood

hyperglycemia

excessive sugar in the blood

hyperkalemia

excessive potassium in the blood

hyperpituitarism

state of excessive pituitary gland activity (characterized by excessive secretion of pituitary hormones)

hyperthyroidism

state of excessive thyroid gland activity (characterized by excessive secretion of thyroid hormones)

hypocalcemia

deficient calcium in the blood

hypoglycemia

deficient sugar in the blood

hypokalemia

deficient potassium in the blood

hyponatremia

deficient sodium in the blood

hypopituitarism

state of deficient pituitary gland activity

hypothyroidism

state of deficient thyroid gland activity (characterized by decreased secretion of thyroid hormones)

panhypopituitarism

state of total deficient pituitary gland activity

parathyroidoma

tumor of parathyroid gland

thyroiditis

inflammation of the thyroid gland

acidosis

condition brought about by an abnormal accumulation of acid products of metabolism seen in uncontrolled diabetes mellitus

Addison disease

chronic syndrome resulting from a deficiency in the hormonal secretion of the adrenal cortex. Symptoms may include weakness, darkening of skin, loss of appetite, depression and other emotional problems

cretinism

condition caused by congenital absence or atrophy (wasting away) of the thyroid gland, resulting in hypothyroidism. The disease is characterized by puffy features, mental deficiency, large tongue, and dwarfism

Cushing syndrome

group of symptoms attributed to the excessive production of cortisol by the adrenal cortices. This syndrome may be the result of a pituitary tumor or a primary adrenal gland dysfunction. Symptoms include abnormally pigmented skin, "moon face," pads of fat on the chest and abdomen, "buffalo hump" and wasting away

diabetes insipidus (DI)

result of decreased secretion of antidiuretic hormone by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland. Symptoms include excessive thirst and large amounts of urine and sodium being excreted from the body

diabetes mellitus (DM)

chronic disease involving a disorder of carbohydrate metabolism caused by underactivity of the islets of Langerhans and characterized by elevated blood sugar (hyperglycemia). DM can cause chronic renal disease, retinopathy, and neuropathy. In extreme cases the patient may develop ketosis, acidosis, and finally coma.

gigantism

condition brought about by overproduction of growth hormone by the pituitary gland before puberty

goiter

enlargement of the thyroid gland

Graves disease

a disorder of the thyroid gland characterized by the presence of hyperthyroidism, goiter, and exophthalmos

ketosis

condition resulting from uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, in which the body has an abnormal concentration of ketone bodies resulting from excessive fat metabolism

myxedema

condition resulting from a deficiency of the thyroid hormone thyroxine; a severe form of hypothyroidism in an adult. Symptoms include puffiness of the face and hands, coarse and thickened skin, enlarged tongue, slow speech and anemia

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