Western Civilizations Chapter 19 and 20

50 terms by lturne

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cottage industry

production method where tasks were done by individuals in their rural homes

entrepreneur

were interested in finding new business opportunities and new ways to make profits

capital

money available for investment

secularism

indifference to or rejection of religion

industrial capitalism

economic system based on industrial production

realpolitik

politics based on practical matters

conservatism

based on tradition and social stability

liberalism

political philosophy based on the Enlightenment ideas; people should be as free as possible from government constraint

realism

rejected romanticism to portray life as it was

romanticism

emphasizes feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing

socialism

system in which society owns and controls some means of production

nationalism

awareness of being a part of a community with common language, religion, and national symbols

kaiser

emperor

militarism

reliance on military strength

organic evolution

plants and animals have evolved over time

Three factors contributed to Great Britain's industrial success

1. labor pool of displaced farmers
2. capital
3. natural resources and a river network that provided transport

Where were most early factories located? Why?

near waterways because they provided the source of power

What did James Watt invent?

an improved steam engine

Who contributed to advances in engine development?

Gottlieb Daimler and Rudolf Diesel

What was the main cause of the Crimean War?

Russia wanted to control the Balkans to have access to the Mediterranean Sea

What is another name for a popular vote?

Plebiscite

What is the movement to end slaver called?

abolitionism

What is the act of setting a group of people free called?

emancipation

At the start of the U.S. Civil War the first state to secede was South Carolina, what does secede mean?

withdraw

Originally liberalism did not believe that all men should have the right to vote, only upper and middle-class men who owned property, why?

They feared mob rule (by the uneducated masses)

The right of the Great Powers (Britain, Russian, Prussia, Austria, and later France) to send armies to other countries to restore order is called:

principle of intervention

Why did the reforms of Czar Alexander II not satisfy many Russians?

1. landowners kept best land for themselves
2.they followed the old ways of farming
3.conservatives thought he was destroying society

What was the role of the steam engine in the industrial revolution?

it allowed factories to be located in urban areas away from water

What are the features of the romantic style?

feelings, emotions, and imagination

How did discoveries in science in the 1800s benefit Europeans?

They improved medicine, industry, and transportation

bourgeoisie

middle and upper class- oppressors

proletariat

working class- the oppressed

dictatorship

governent in which a person or group has absolute power

revisionist

Marxists that rejected the revolutionary approach and argued that workers must continue to organize in mass political parties and even work with other parties to gain reforms

feminism

movement for women's rights

literacy

ability to read

ministerial responsiblity

idea that the prime minister is responsible to the popularly elected legislative body and not to the executive officer

Duma

Russian legislative assembly

psychoanalysis

a therapist and patient probe deeply into the patient's memory

pogroms

organized massacres

Who wrote the Communist Manifesto?

Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels

What purposes were served by compulsory education? (List three)

-trained youth to work- white collar jobs
-helped increased literacy rates
- taught political ideas and promoted nationalism

Why did American workers organize labor unions?

Because they worked in unsafe factories for little pay

Who was the emperor of Germany at the end of the nineteenth century?

William II (Wilhelm II)

What basic right were women denied until World War I? (After WWI in the U.S.A.)

the right to vote

What was the movement in which writers and artists rebelled against traditional styles (1870-1914) was called?

modernism

How did Florence Nightingale and Clara Barton transform nursing?

they transformed nursing into a profession

Who was the inventor of the light bulb among his many other inventions?

Thomas Edison

Who sent the first radio waves across the Atlantic / invented the wireless telegraph?

Marconi

10. What was the cause of the grievances that workers were trying to give to the Czar in the "Bloody Sunday" incident? (List three)

pitiful working conditions
-poor living conditions
-government repression

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