Language of Medicine Chapter 11 Pronunciation of Terms

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Language of Medicine Chapter 11 Pronunciation of Terms

angiography

examination of blood vessels after injection of a radiopaque contrast medium

angioplasty

surgical repair of a blood vessel

anoxia

deprivation of oxygen

aorta

largest artery in the body

aortic stenosis

narrowing of the aorta

arrhythmia

irregular or abnormal rhythm, usually referring to the heart rhythm

arterial anastomosis

Surgical joining together of two arteries.

arteriography

process of recording (x-ray) arteries after injecting contrast material

arteriole

small artery

arterosclerosis

Hardening of arteries (the most common cholesterol-like deposits (plaque) in arteries)

artery

a blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart

atherectomy

surgical removal of plaque buildup from the interior of an artery

atheroma

fatty tissue tumor inside a large vessel

atherosclerosis

Hardening of the arteries

atrial

pertaining to an upper chamber of the heart

atrioventricular bundle

in the heart, conducts the electrical impulse from the atrioventricular node into the ventricles

atrioventricular node

neurological tissue in the center of the heart that receives and amplifies the conduction of impulses from the SA node to the bundle of His

atrium; atria

one of the two upper chambers of the heart

brachial artery

pertaining to the artery in the arm

bradycardia

abnormally slow heart rate

bundle of his

specialized conduction tissue in the interventricular septum divides into the right and left branches

capillary

smallest blood vessel; brings nutrients and oxygen to the tissues and absorbs carbon dioxide and waste products

carbon dioxide

gas produced by body cells when oxygen and food combine

cardiogenic shock

inadequate functioning of heart (heart attack or heart disease)

cardiomegaly

enlargement of the heart

cardiomyopathy

disease of the heart muscle

coronary arteries

the two arteries that supply blood to the heart muscle

cyanosis

a bluish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes

deoxygenated blood

blood that is oxygen poor

diastole

relaxation phase of the heartbeat

electrocardiogram

a record of the electrical activity of the heart that, if abnormal, may indicate heart disease

endocardium

inner lining of the heart

endothelium

innermost lining of blood vessel

hypercholesterolemia

excessive amount of cholesterol in the blood

hypoxia

deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells

interventricular septum

wall between the right and left ventricles

mitral valve

a valve in the heart that guards the opening between the left atrium and the left ventricle

mitral valvulitis

Inflammation of the mitral valve.

myocardium

heart muscle

myxoma

Benign tumor of the heart. The tumor is embedded in soft mucoid stromal tissue.

normal sinus rhythm

heart rhythm originating in the sinoatrial node with a resting rate of 60 to 100 beats per minute

oxygen

gas that enters the blood through the lungs and travels to the heart to be pumped via arteries to all body cells

pacemaker

a device that delivers electrical impulses to the heart to regulate the heartbeat

pericardiocentesis

surgical puncture of the membrane surrounding the heart in order to remove fluid

pericardium

a double-layered serous membrane that surrounds the heart

phlebotomy

incision of a vein

pulmonary artery

artery carrying oxygen-poor blood from the heart to the lungs

pulmonary circulation

circulation of blood from the pulmonary artery through the vessels in the lungs and back to the heart via the pulmonary vein, providing for the exchange of gases

pulmonary valve

valve positioned between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery

pulmonary vein

vessel that carries oxygen-rich blood from the lungs to the heart

pulse

the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart

septum

a wall of tissue that separates the left and right sides of the heart

sinoatrial node

pacemaker of the heart

sphygmomanometer

a pressure gauge for measuring blood pressure

stethoscope

instrument used for listening to internal body sounds

systemic circulation

circulation of blood throughout the body through arteries, arterioles, capillaries, and veins to deliver oxygen and nutrients to body tissues

systole

contraction of the heart

tachycardia

rapid heart beat

thrombolysis

destruction of a clot

thrombophlebitis

inflammation of a vein with clot formation

tricuspid valve

valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle

valve

a flap of tissue that prevents blood from flowing backward

valvotomy

incision of a valve

valvuloplasty

surgical repair of a heart valve

vascular

pertaining to blood vessels

vasoconstriction

reduction in the lumen as the smooth muscle contracts

vasodilation

widening of the blood vessels that allows for increased blood flow

vein

a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart

vena cava

largest vein in the body

venipuncture

puncture of a vein to remove blood, instill a medication, or start an intravenous infusion

venous

pertaining to a vein or the veins

ventricle

lower chamber of the heart that pumps blood out of the heart

venule

a vessel that carries blood from a capillary to a vein

Ace inhibitor

angiotensin-converting enzyme; relax blood vessels; blood pressure hypertension and heart failure

acute coronary syndrome

sudden symptoms of insufficient blood supply to the heart

aneurysm

local widening of an artery

angina

pain or discomfort in the chest or adjacent areas caused by insufficient blood flow to the heart muscle and a build up of lactic acid

angiography

X-ray of the blood vessels after injecting a contrast medium

atrioventricular block

failure of proper conduction of impulses from SA node through the AV node to the atrioventricular bundle - bundle of His

atrial fibrillation

when the normal rhythmic contractions of the atria are replaced by rapid, irregular twitching of the muscular heart wall

auscultation

hearing sounds within the body through a stethoscope

beta blocker

A drug that slows heart rate, lowers blood pressure, controls angina and protects patients with prior heart attacks from future heart attacks

bruit

soft, blowing sound heard on auscultation; murmur

calcium channel blocker

Drug used to treat chest pain (angina) and high blood pressure (hypertension).

cardiac arrest

Sudden, unexpected stopping of heart action; sudden cardiac death

cardiac catheterization

A thin, flexible tube is guided into the heart via a vein or an artery

cardiac MRI

Images of the heart are produced with magnetic waves

cardiac tamponade

acute compression of the heart caused by fluid accumulation in the pericardial cavity

cardioversion

procedure to restore normal rhythm of the heart by applying a controlled electrical shock to the exterior of the chest

claudication

the process of lameness, limping; may result from inadequate blood supply to the muscles in the leg

coarctation of the aorta

narrowing of the descending portion of the aorta resulting in a limited flow of blood to the lower part of the body

computed tomography angiography

three dimensional x-ray images of the heart and coronary arteries using computed tomography.

congenital heart disease

heart abnormality present at birth

congestive heart failure

The inability of the heart to pump a sufficient amount of blood throughout the body, or requiring elevated filling pressures in order to pump effectively

coronary artery disease

disease of the arteries surrounding the heart

coronary artery bypass graft

surgical technique to bring a new blood supply to heart muscle by detouring around blocked arteries

deep vein thrombosis

formation of a blood clot in a deep vein on the body, occurring most frequently in the iliac and femoral veins.

digoxin

digitalis preparation (trade name Lanoxin) used to treat congestive heart failure or cardiac arrhythmia

digital subtraction angiography

a process of radiographic imaging of the blood vessels that removes structures not being studied

doppler ultrasound

a study that uses sound for detection of blood flow within the vessels

echocardiography

recording of sound waves through the heart to evaluate structure and motion

electrocardiography

process of recording the electrical activity of the heart

electron beam computed tomography

Electron beams and CT identify calcium deposits in and around coronary arteries to diagnose CAD

embolus

A clot that breaks lose and travels through the bloodstream.

endartectomy

surgical removal of plaque from an artery that is narrowed or blocked

endocarditits

inflammation of the inner layer of the heart

extracorporeal circulation

pertaining to the circulation of the blood outside the body via a heart-lung machine or hemodialyze

fibrillation

chaotic, irregular contractions of the heart, as in atrial or ventricular fibrillation

flutter

abnormally rapid beating of the auricles of the heart (especially in a regular rhythm)

heart transplantation

replacement of a diseased or malfunctioning heart with a donor's heart.

hemorrhoids

varicose veins near the anus.

holter monitoring

an ECG device is worn during a 24 hour period to detect cardiac arrhythmias

hypertension

abnormally high blood pressure

implantable cardioverter defibrillator

Small electric device implanted inside the chest (near the collarbone) to sense arrhythmia and terminate them to restore normal sinus rhythm.

infarction

necrosis of tissue due to ischemia

ischemia

insufficient blood flow to an area

left ventricular assist device

Booster pump implanted in the abdomen with a tube inserted into the left ventricle. An LVAD is a "bridge to transplant" or destination therapy when heart transplantation is impossible.

lipid tests

measurement of cholesterol triglycerides (fats) in blood sample

lipoprotein electrophoresis

lipoproteins are physically separated in a blood sample

mitral stenosis

narrowing of the mitral valve

mitral valve prolapse

improper closure of the mitral valve

murmur

an abnormal sound of the heart

myocardial infarction

death of the heart muscle; heart attack

nitroglycerin

A nitrate drug used in the treatment of angina

occlusion

closure or blockage (as of a blood vessel)

palpitations

Uncomfortable sensations in the chest related to cardiac arrhythmias

patent ductus arteriosus

a ductus arteriosus that failed to close at birth

percutaneous coronary intervention

a balloon tipped catheter is inserted into a coronary artery to open the artery, stents are put in place

pericardial friction rub

Scraping or grating noise heard on auscultation of the heart; suggestive of pericarditis

pericarditis

inflammation of the membrane surrounding the heart

peripheral vascular disease

blockage of blood vessels outside the heart

petechiae

small pinpoint hemorrhage under the skin

positron emission tomography

using a computerized radiographic technique to examine the metabolic activity in various tissues (especially in the brain)

radiofrequency catheter ablation

destruction of abnormal cardiac electrical pathways causing arrhythmias.

Raynaud disease

Recurrent episodes of pallor and cyanosis primarily in fingers and toes

rheumatic heart disease

damage to heart muscle and heart valves by rheumatic fever

septal defects

Small holes in the septa between the atria and ventricles

serum enzyme tests

chemicals measured in blood as evidence heart attack

statins

drugs that have powerful lipid lowering properties

stress test

performed to assess cardiovascular health and function during and after stress

telemetry

electronic transmission of data

tetralogy of fallot

A congenital malformation of the heart involving for distinct defects.

technetium 99m sestamibi scan

A radioactive chemical is injected IV and shows perfusion of blood in heart muscle. It is taken up in the area of a myocardial infarction, producing hot spots

thrill

vibration felt on palpation of the chest

thrombolytic therapy

therapy consisting of the administration of a pharmacological agent to cause thrombolysis of an abnormal blood clot

thrombotic occlusion

blockage of a vessel due to a clot

varicose veins

abnormally swollen, twisted veins with defective valves, most often seen in the legs

vegatations

clumps of platelets, clotting proteins, microorganisms, and red blood cells on the endocardium in conditions such as bacterial endocarditis and rheumatic heart disease.

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