Plants with no true roots, stems, and leaves. Absorb water directly through cell membrane.
Include the phyla hepatophyta (liverworts), Bryophyta (mosses), and Anthocerophyta (hornworts)
Life Cycle of Bryophyte
Gametophyte is the most dominant part. Notice in mosses that gametophyte is always present and sporophytes grow at top and is short lived
true vascular tissue. Limits their distribution to moist habitats.
Fertilization in bryophytes
Bryophytes stay close to the ground to retain water for sperm to swim from the antheridium to the archegonium.
the plant body
root-like structures in bryophytes that help anchor the plant and have some water and mineral absorptive capabilities.
Includes the Liverworts
Fertilization in liverworts
Can reproduce asexually and sexually
Asexual reproduction in liverworts
When older, central portion of the the thallus dies, leaving the growing tips isolated
Found on the dorsal side of some thalli. Gemmmae cups use rain water to splash out the gemmae which may turn into individual plants.
male sex organ and produce sperm on liverworts. Look like umbrellas
Female sex organs on the liverwort and resemble tine banana tree leaves.
female part of a moss
male part of the moss. at the top of the moss.
have true leaves, stems, and roots. sporophyte is the dominant phase
Plant vascular tissue is composed of:
xylem and phloem
water and minerals are transported from the roots to the rest of the plant
nutrients and carbohydrates are transported through these from leaves to the rest of plant
ferns, whisk ferns, horsetails
seedless vascular plant that occupy habitats that range from tropical rain forests to deserts
an independent sporophyte, posses well developed vascular tissue, and have stomata.
that main leaf of a fern
clusters of sporangia on the underside of the leaf
Production of spores in ferns
meiosis occurs in the sporangium and haploid spores are formed
produce only one kind of spore. male and female on same gametophyte.
Spores fall from sori and:
fall to ground to make gametophyte. develops into one kind of gametophyte which produces antheridia and archegonia.
heart shaped gametophyte. come from a matured sori and haploid spores are released and germinate
Seedless terrestrial plants rely on:
external source of water for the sperm to swim to the egg
fronds from the growing sporophyte break through soil in a colied position and uncurls later to display the frond
"naked seed". produce seeds that are exposed or found on the scales of cones.
Seed-bearing vascular plants
have seeds rather than spores
a flowering plant
Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move.
the pressure that is exerted on the inside of cell walls and that is caused by the movement of water into the cell. aids in structure as well.
evaporation of water from the base of a plant or tree, which brings water vapor to the tops
A thin layer of adhesive extracellular material, primarily pectins, found between the primary walls of adjacent young plant cells.
male part of the flower. has the pollen on the surface
female part of the flower. consists of the ovary, which contains the ovule, style, and stigma
section of the flower where pollen will land on and pollinate. sperm will travel down style to ovule and will fertilize.
the part of the stamen that contains pollen
stalk that supports the anther
flower containing both male and female parts on one flower
flower containing either male or female on one flower but not both
flowers where parts come in multiples of three such as grasses, palms, orchids, corn, and onions. endosperm is usually present in the mature seed
flowers where parts come in multiples of four or five. endosperm absent in mature seen. tomato plants and oak trees are examples. leaves vary in shape, but are usually broader than the leaves of monocots and possess net- or web-like venation.
having true tissues
lacking true tissues
subgroup of Metazoa. when split by a line, object is equal around all sides.
subgroup of metazoa. when line divided in the middle, equal on both sides
circular body plan that can be divided into 5 equal parts. sea stars are an example.
having no definite shape
having 2 germ layers: ectoderm and endoderm.
has three germ layers: the ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm.
Animal whose mouth is formed from the blastopore first. cell growth is determinate.
Animal whose anus is formed from the blastospore first. cell growth is inderminate.
the internal skeleton. bony and cartilaginous structure (especially of vertebrates). provides structure.
the exterior protective or supporting structure or shell of many animals (especially invertebrates) including bony or horny parts such as nails or scales or hoofs
the first opening made during gastrulation
organism permanently attached to one place
specialized cell in sponges that uses a flagellum to move a steady current of water through the sponge
The intake pores on a sponge
the "do-all" cells of sponges, moving by means of pseudopodia, they digest and distribute food, transport oxygen, and disposes of waste. they manufacture the fibers that make up a sponges skeleton
the central cavity of a sponge
the large opening at the top of a sponge
small, spike shaped particles of calcium carbonate or silicon dioxide that make up the skeleton of some sponges
a fibrous protein that contains sulfur and composes the fibers of the skeleton of some sponges
complete digestive system
mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine. two openings one for food the other for waste.
incomplete digestive system
a single opening to a pouch-like cavity serves as both mouth and anus
method in which food particles are filtered from water as it passes by or through some part of the organism
interaction in which one organism captures and feeds on another organism.
open circulatory system
blood enters the innder cavity of an organism and bathes the vital organs
closed circulatory system
system in which blood is contained within a network of blood vessels
Two-cell layered body with a digestive cavity surrounded by tentacles that sting prey. E.g. jellyfish, hydras, sea anemones.
the jellylike substance that separates the epithelial cells in a cnidarian
the sessile, tubular form of a cnidarian with a mouth and tentacles at one end and a basal disk at the other
a free-swimming cnidarian with a bell-shaped body and tentacles
class including anemones, corals, sea pens, and sea fans; polyp stage dominant
Division of Protostomes. Animals that molt. example: nematodes, arthropods
hard outer covering or case of certain organisms such as arthropods and turtles or a waxy covering on the surface of stems and leaves that acts as an adaptation to prevent desiccation in terrestrial plants.
molting, periodic shedding of the cuticle in arthropods or the outer skin in reptiles
the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals
cephalathoraz, carapace, abdomen
jointed foot invertebrates, arachnids, crustaceans
the fluid that circulates through the body of an animal that has an open circulatory system. the fluid that bathes tissues
each eye consists of several thousands light detectors. keen in sensing movement
organs that exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide with water
network of hollow breathing tubes that extend throughout the body of most terrestrial arthropods
A saccular respiratory organ found in some arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders, consisting of several parallel membranous folds arranged like the pages in a book
first pair of legs in crayfishes that bear large claws that are modified to catch, pick up, crush, and cut food
Sensory structures that are able to detect air movement, vibrations, and smells
serve as feelers sensitive to touch, taste, and equilibrium
4 pairs of legs used for walking, the front pair is also used for feeding
in crustaceans, the part of the exoskeleton that covers the cephalothorax
the cavity containing the major viscera
region of a crustacean formed by the fusion of the head with the thorax
middle of the tail, triangular muscle
small leg-like structures under the tail of the crayfish used to aid in swimming
collective name for stomach of crayfish. may contain a gizzard like structure used for grinding food
hydrolic acids and enzymes are produced here
exeretary organs to secrete blood, gases
head, thorax, abdomen
One of two distinct clades within the protostomes. It includes annelids and mollusks. clams, octopus, snails, earthworms
Distinctive larval stage observed in annelids and molluscs
concentration of sense organs and nerve cells at the front of an animal's body
ear-like projections, sensitive to chemicals and touch
long, flat worms that live as a parasite in the intestines of humans and animals
The knoblike anterior end of a tapeworm, having suckers or hooklike parts that in the adult stage serve as organs of attachment to the host
One of the segments of a tapeworm, containing both male and female
A horseshoe-shaped or circular fold of the body wall bearing ciliated tentacles that surround the mouth.
ciliated rotating wheel used in locomotion and moving food particles into organism