Company A describes its cars' reliability, mileage, and durability. Company B's ads show ppl having a good time driving around in their cars. As ads focus on ________-route processing; B's use _________-route processing
Which factor decreases the persuasiveness of the source of a message?
speaking slowly and carefully
Apparently, fear arousal facilitates persuasion when?
a way to avoid the almost certain danger is available
When your audience _________, a one-sided argument is most effective for changing attitudes.
a. has experienced reactance
b. already knows that there are two sides to the argument
c. already agrees with you
d. is highly educated.
c. already agrees with you
T or F: Leaders of cults who get individuals to engage in unusual types of behavior use common, but multiple, methods of persuasion
What route of persuasiondo billboards and television commercials tend to use?
the peripheral route to persuasion
The __________ route process is more likely to lead to long term attitude and behavior changes than is the _______-route process.
Stephanie is campaigning for the conservation of fossil fuels to a group of NASA engineers. To be the most successful, Stephanie should incorporate which type of arguments in her speech?
If two messages are presented back to back, which message will likely hold the most influence?
the first message
Generally speaking, the most persuasive channel of communication seems to be?
People who have a high need for cognition are likely to prefer ___________ routes to persuasion.
Sharon wants to talk to her teenage daughter about the dangers of smoking. What is the least likely method to persuade Sharon's daugter to resist the pressure to smoke?
tell her she is forbidden from smoking and threaten to take away her car if she ever tries it
If a messages purpose and content elicits bad judgements we call it?
A person's perceived expertise and trustworthiness comprise their overall?
In terms of persuasion, attractive people are ________
Kevin wants his parents to extend his curfew for one hour this weekend. Kevin is most likely to persuade his parents if he tells them what?
about the A he got on his physics test first
In what way is fear arousing techniques least likely to be effective?
getting people to use condoms to avoid exposure to AIDS
Ted is most likely to elicit opinion change from an audience whose opinion is greatly discrepant from his own if Ted?
Persuasion (stabilizes, increases, decreases) as the significance and familiarity of the issue _____________.
Who is easiest to persuade?
someone with moderate self-esteem
Stephanie believes that people become more conservative as they get older. Stephanie would most likely agree with the _____ exaplanation of attitude change.
what is natural selection?
the evolutionary process by which heritable traits that best enable organisms to survive and reproduce in particular environments are passed to ensuing generations.
who proposed the theory of natural selection in 1859?
In charles darwin's theory of natural selection what is true abt offspring that survive?
they are more likely to pass their genes to ensuing generations.
what does natural selection imply?
that certain genes those that increased the odds of surviving long enough to reproduce and nurture descendants become more abudant
In the snowy arctic environment genes programming thick coat of camoflauging white fur are the genetic composition in polar bears is an example of?
Standards for accepted and expected behavior is called?
All cultures have their accepted ideas about appropriate behavior we often view these social expectations as?
a negative force that imprisons people in a blind effort to perpetuate tradition.
(true or false) norms restrain & control us in a way that we hardly sense their existence.
what is the best way to learn the norms of our culture?
to visit another culture and see that its members do things differently.
In what ways do cultures vary?
in their norms for expressiveness, punctuality, rule-breaking, and personal space.
define: gender roles
behavior expectations for males & females of who should cook, wash dishes, hunt game, and lead companies & countries
what varies over time & by culture
What is the vicarious experience of another's feelings; putting oneself in antohers shoes.
What gender is more likely to describe themselves as having empathy or being able to feel what another fells,
What is the explanation to the empathy difference?
women tend to outperform men at reading others emotions
mixing masculine and feminine characteristics
What happens concerning androgyny as people mature to middle age & beyond?
women become more assertive and self confident, and men become more empathetic and less domineering.
What is acting as other ppl act & being affected by how they act called?
Acting or thinking differently from teh way you would act and think if you were alone is called?
what is a change in behavior or belief to accord with others called?
What is the only way to know if someone is conforming?
to identify whether thier behavior & beliefs would be teh same if they are alone
what are the 3 varieties of conformity?
compliance, obedience, and acceptance
conformity that involves publicly acting in accord w/an implied or explicit request while privately disagreeing
What is acting in accord with a direct order or command called?
A motive to protect or restore one's sense of freedom.
When does reatance arise?
when someone threatens our freedom of action
What may contribute to underage drinking?
what are the 5 universal cultural similarities?
1. friendship norms
2. universal trait dimensions
3. social beliefs & status norms
4. incest taboo
5. norms of war
what is the friendship norm?
respecting a friends privacy, and making eyecontact while talking
What is the universal trait dimension?
people describing themselves as stable, outgoing, and open
What is the universal trait dimension of social beliefs & status norms?
advances in intimacy are usually suggested by the higher status person
What is the norms of war universal trait? (3)
wear identifiable uniforms, surrender with a gesture, and treat prisoners humanely
information presented early is most persuasive this is called?
What is it called when information presented last sometimes has teh most influence?
(true or false) recency effects are less common then primacy effects
(just read) When 2 persuasive messages are presented back to back and the audience responds at some later time, the first message has the advantage. When the 2 messages are seperated in time and the audience responds soon after the second message, the second message has the advantage
two or more ppl who interact & who influence one another.
what do different groups help us do?
meet different human needs
what are the different human needs?
to affiliate, acheive, and to gain a social identity
the tendency of ppl to outperform simple or well learned tasks better when others are present is called?
what is the current meaning of social facilitation?
the strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others.
What is the tendency for ppl to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when they are individually accountable called?
the mode of thinking that persons engage in when concurrence seeking becomes so dominant in a cohesive in group that it tends to override realistic appraisal of alternative courses of action
what does groupthink usually sprout from?
1. a cohesive group
2. relative isolation of the group from dissenting view points
3. a directive leader who signals what decision he or she favors
Loss of self awareness & evaluation apprehension is called?
what does deindividuation occur in?
group situations that foster resposiveness to group norms
expllain deindividuation and the bigger the mob.
The bigger the mob, the more its members lose self awareness and become willing to commit atrocities such as burning or lacerating a victm
What increases ppls willingness to cheat or behave selfishly when in a group
peoples perceived anonymity
what is likely to occur in large groups?
define: central route to persuasion
occur when interested ppl focus on teh arguments and respond with favorable thoughts
what occurs when ppl are influenced by incidental cues such as a speakers attractiveness called?
peripheral route to persuasion
what route of persuasion do ads and commercials use?
(central route of persuasion, peripheral route of persuasion) often swiflty changes explicit attitudes while ( central route of persuasion, peripheral route of persuasion) doesn't
how many ppl were in Ash's conformity experiment?
in Ashs conformity experiment what did the experimenter ask each person?
which line they thought was longer
Explain ashs experiment of conformity?
an experiment asked 7 guys which line they thought was longer. The first 5 ppl gave wrong answers on purpose and the 6th person (experiment) most of the time agreed with the wrong answer even though they knew it was wrong.
In ashs's experiment what happened when teh experiment answered alone?
they were correct 99% of the time...
What did Milgrams obedience experiment test?
what happens when the demands of authority clash with the demands of conscience.
Wht did Milgrams obedience experiment ?
the experiment to teach a list of word pAIRS to teh other and to punish errors by delivering shocks of increasing intensity.
In Milgrams experiment what did the switches range from?
15 to 450 volts
In Milgrams experiment of 40 men ______ of them progressed to 450 volts.