the recognized violation of cultural norms
the violation of a society's formally enacted criminal law
Studied criminals to find links between genetics and being a criminal. "Natural born criminal"
Biological Theories of deviance
Explains human behavior as the result of biological instincts
Psychological Theories of deviance
Sees deviance as the result of unsuccessful socialization
4 functions of deviance
Affirms values. Clarifies boundaries. Brings people together. Encourages social change.
Structural Functionalism of Deviance
It is a cultural universal. Deviance varies according to cultural norms
Symbolic Interaction of Deviance
People become deviant as others define them that way. People are viewed as respectable members of society until others find out about their deviant actions.
Social Conflict Theory of Deviance
Rule making and rule breaking involve social power. Powerful people make rules that protect or benefit them.
Attempts by society to control or regulate people's thoughts and behavior. Mass media influences our views and rules
Criminal Justice System
the organizations-police,courts,and prison officials- that respond to alleged violations of the law.
Deviance comes from the structure of society and it is beneficial to society
Deviance comes from limited opportunities in society
Merton Strain theory
Explains deviance in terms of a society's cultural goals and the means available to achieve them
Merton's Cultural goal
What we want to achieve. Usually financial wealth.
Merton's Conventional means
A way to achieve the goal through working, inheritance, school, and the lottery
Merton's Unacceptable means
Taking illegal actions to achieve the goal such as theft and selling drugs
Rejects goal but accepts conventional means. People who are satisfied with mediocre jobs and lifestyle.
Accepts goals and conventional means. Doctors and business professionals
Accepts goals but rejects conventional means. Drug Dealers
It is normal to be deviant within this subculture. Examples are gangs and mobs
The idea that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respond to those actions
Committing occasional some what normal deviant acts. Examples include drinking under age, skipping school.
Repeatedly breaking the rules and changing one's self concept by taking on a new identity as a habitual deviant and changing social circles to associate with below deviants
a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a person's self-concept and social identity
A reinterpretation of someones past in light of some present deviance. Thinking back to things you never said but you thought.
Using a person's current deviant identity to predict a their future actions
People wrongfully label those who are different as deviant or mentally ill.
Medicalization of deviance
The transformation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition. Saying alcoholism is a disease. Bad or good is diagnosed as sick or well
3 things that define deviance as moral or medical
Who responds such as police or medical professionals. How people respond do they think the person should be punished or do they need medical treatment. And the competency of the person can they be held responsible for their actions or are they mentally ill and unable to control what they do.
Sutherland's Differential Association Theory
Links deviance with how much others encourage or discourage such behavior. It matters who you hang out with
Hirschi's Control Theory
States that imagining the possible consequences of deviance often discourages such behavior. People who are well integrated into society are less likely to engage in deviant behavior.
Powerless people are defined and treated as deviants
People who interfere with capitalism are treated and labeled as deviants
White collar crime
Crime committed by people of high social position in the course of their occupations. Rarely prosecuted
The illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf. Most cases go unpunished
A repayment; a deserved punishment
the attempt to discourage criminality through the use of punishment
a program for reforming the offender to prevent later offenses
rendering an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through imprisonment or permanently by execution