What makes defining abnormality difficult?
There is no one behavior that serves to make someone abnormal.
What is a reason for classifying mental disorders?
A classification system allows information to be organized.
Which of the following is a disadvantage of having a classification system for mental disorders?
When a label is used to describe an individual's behavior, information about the person is lost.
According to the DSM-IV's definition of mental disorder, impairment in one or more areas of functioning (disability)
may be present but is not a necessary condition for making a diagnosis.
What is a culture-specific disorder?
A disorder seen only in certain cultures
Why is it important to know how many people have diagnosable mental illnesses?
Such information is needed to plan for the provision of adequate services.
What does it mean if a disorder is said to be highly prevalent?
It is common.
Why is it believed that the NCS survey used to estimate the prevalence of mental illness underestimated that prevalence?
Measures of several types of disorders were not included.
A major finding from the National Comorbidity Survey (NCS) was that
over half of the people with a history of one serious disorder had two or more comorbid disorders.
The trend toward deinstitutionalization in recent years means that
people are hospitalized more briefly and then treated on an outpatient basis.
Which of the following mental health professionals has a medical degree?
Why is it important to have some understanding of what causes a psychological disorder?
The selection of a treatment approach is largely determined by assumptions about causality.
Why is it dangerous to make conclusions based on case studies?
Conclusions based on so little data are likely to be flawed.
An important FIRST step in studying a particular disorder is
determining the criteria for identifying people who have the disorder.
Why is a representative sample desirable?
The more representative a sample is, the more generalizable the data.
Why are correlational (observational) research designs often used in abnormal psychology?
It is often unethical or impossible to directly manipulate the variables involved in abnormal psychology.
What type of research design begins with the identification of individuals who are likely to develop a particular disorder?
What is the value of using an ABAB design?
The effects of a single form of treatment are studied twice in the same subject.
Which of the following would most likely be explored with an experiment?
The effectiveness of a new treatment for depression
What did Seligman find by studying dogs exposed to uncontrollable shock?
Seligman found that uncontrollable shock led the dogs to behave much like depressed humans.
A researcher who provides a certain treatment for one group and withholds treatment from a completely comparable group is using the ________ research method.
Which variable is manipulated in an experiment?
A significant positive correlation is found between variables x and y. Which of the following may be safely inferred?
as x increases, y increases
A psychologist wishes to test the hypothesis that the experience of chronic physical pain can cause clinical depression, but the Ethics Committee of his university won't allow him to conduct a study in which he inflicts pain on the subjects. What kind of research design might best allow the psychologist to test this hypothesis while circumventing the committee's objection?
To determine whether certain characteristics are true of people in general, and not just of people with mental disorders, it is important to use
a control group.
What is trephining?
An ancient practice in which a hole was drilled in the skull to release evil spirits.
The belief in the four humors as a means of explaining temperament
proposed that mental disorders were the result of an imbalance.
One of Aristotle's most major contributions to psychology was
his description of consciousness.
What is Galen credited with?
Recognizing that psychological disorders could have both biological and psychological causes
What trend was observed during the Middle Ages in Europe?
Supernatural explanations for mental disorders grew in popularity.
Compared to the West, in the Chinese "Dark Ages," views of mental illness
began at a more sophisticated level but regressed, like the West, to belief in the supernatural forces, although not for as long or with as negative a reaction to patients.
The fact that episodes of mass madness peaked at the time of the Black Death illustrates that
phenomena that impact the society and its structure may also affect mental health.
Recent historical reviews of the literature indicate that the typical accused witch in the Middle Ages in Europe was
an ill-tempered, impoverished woman.
The early asylums
were primarily warehouses for the mentally ill.
"Bedlam" in London was one of several hospitals for the mentally ill in different countries that
exhibited their patients for profit.
believed that mental patients were ill and needed to be treated as such - with kindness and caring.
Who is considered the founder of American psychiatry?
is credited with establishing numerous humane mental hospitals in many countries.
The moral management treatment
focused on the moral and spiritual development of mental patients rather than their disorder.
What is Clifford Beers known for?
He publicized the brutal treatment that many mental patients received.
During the first half of the twentieth century, mental hospital care would best be characterized as
Which of the following served to publicize the plight of the mentally ill in the mid 1940s?
The publication of "The Snake Pit"
The rationale behind deinstitutionalization was
a concern that prolonged hospitalization could keep patients from being able to adjust to and function in the outside world.
Which of the following is recognized as a major biomedical breakthrough in psychopathology because it established the link between mental and physical illnesses?
the discovery of the cause and later a cure for general paresis (syphilitic insanity)
Kraepelin is credited with
identifying different types of mental disorders.
The Nancy School
advanced the recognition that psychological factors were involved in the development of mental disorders.
A catharsis is
an emotional release.
a reaction to what the behaviorists perceived as a lack of scientific rigor in psychoanalysis.
The central principle of operant conditioning is that
the consequences of behavior influence its likelihood of being repeated.
The study of hypnosis and its relationship to hysteria was the starting point for
Understanding the causes of mental disorders is important because
such knowledge might make both the prevention and cure of mental disorders possible.
While having a gene for Parkinson's disease guarantees that Parkinson's disease will develop, this is not the only factor that can lead to Parkinson's disease. In other words, the presence of the gene is a ________, but not a ________.
sufficient cause; necessary cause
Childhood abuse is commonly seen in those who develop dissociative disorders later in life. Childhood abuse would best be described as a
distal contributory cause.
the causal pattern of a disorder.
According to Freud, a person who does not appropriately resolve each psychosexual stage would be ___________ at that stage.
John Bowlby's attachment theory emphasized
the quality of parental care in forming attachments.
A diathesis can best be described as a
A protective factor is
an influence that modifies a persons response to environmental stressors.
What is the focus of the field of developmental psychopathology?
To understand what is within the range of normal development so as to have a better understanding of what is abnormal.
Norepinephrine, dopamine, serotonin, and GABA are all
neurotransmitters that are involved in psychopathology.
Cortisol is a hormone that
the adrenal gland produces that mobilizes the body to deal with stress.
Mental disorders are almost always influenced by multiple genes. This means they are
Attractive children and unattractive babies tend to be treated differently. In other words, an infant's physical phenotype may alter how others respond to him or her. What type of genotype-environment correlation is this an example of?
If trait is highly heritable, it would be expected that
the concordance rate for monozygotic twins would be greater than the concordance rate for dizygotic twins.
Which of the following strives to describe the location of genes responsible for mental disorders?
Neural plasticity is
the flexibility of the brain - existing neural circuits can change or new ones can be made.
Suppose that, using linkage analysis, a researcher finds that family members with a high likelihood of developing depression also are very likely to be of below average height. This would mean
the gene for depression is probably located near the gene for height
help a person feel less anxious, but because they usually work by distorting reality, they are not always adaptive.
Which of the following is a criticism of traditional psychoanalytic theory?
Lack of scientific evidence
The behavioral perspective has been criticized for
focusing on symptoms.
Cognitive-behavioral psychologists believe that abnormal behavior
results from distorted thinking and information processing.
The four parenting styles described in the text differ along two dimensions, warmth and control. The style associated with the most positive developmental outcome is best described as ________ in warmth and ________ in control.
high; moderately high
A major factor associated with a child's rejection by peers is
overly aggressive behavior.
Cross-cultural research on stress demonstrates that
responses to stress vary cross-culturally.
A psychologist who takes an eclectic approach is most likely to make which of the following statements?
"I will accept any explanation from psychoanalytic to biological as long as it works."
Which of the following explanations for the relationship between SES and abnormal behavior is supported by the existing data?
a. Low SES may cause abnormal behavior.
b. Abnormal behavior is more likely to go untreated in those of low SES
c. Recovery from loss of a job may be more difficult for those exhibiting signs of mental illness.
d. All of the above
All of the above
Which of the following statements regarding assessment is true?
An adequate assessment should include as much information as possible.
One advantage of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) over the CAT scan is that the MRI
provides better differentiation and clarity.
Which of the following would be used to reveal a dysrhythmia in brain activity?
The reliability of the assessment interview may be enhanced by the use of
are dependent on the competence of the clinician who interprets them.
The use of standardized psychological tests
permits the clinician to determine how a client's behavior compares to some reference group.
"Projective" and "objective" are two types of ________ tests.
The aim of a projective test is to
assess the way a patient perceives ambiguous stimuli.
Which statement about the Rorschach is accurate?
A considerable amount of training is required to administer and score it accurately.
What would determine whether the WISC-III or the WAIS-III is used to test intelligence?
The age of the client
The MMPI is
a structured approach to personality assessment.
The empirical keying approach to making a test like the MMPI involves
picking items that differentiate between different groups, no subjective judgment is needed.
A key feature of the MMPI-2 is that
the clinical scales measure the same properties of personality organization as they always have.
A valid test
measures what it is designed to measure.
Which approach to the classification of abnormal behavior uses statistical criteria to differentiate between normal and abnormal?
If a diagnosis is made by comparing subjects to a "model" of an illness, which type of classification scheme is being used?
Since it was first published, the DSM has
become more objective.
Which axes are rarely used in most clinical settings?
Axes IV and V
One criticism of diagnostic labels is that
they can influence both other people's and the diagnosed person's perception of themselves in negative ways.
The DSM acknowledges that
a DSM diagnosis is only the first step, much more is needed to determine treatment.
While the DSM is designed to be a categorical classification scheme,
the existing criteria tend to lead to a prototypal approach.
Research by Exner and others has shown that the Rorschach
can be scored by computer, thereby increasing its reliability.
Which of the following is an assumption of a categorical approach to abnormal behavior?
Each disorder has unique symptoms.
Which of the following would best address recent criticisms of the TAT?
Use more modern pictures