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G. Stanley Hall described adolescence as a

A) period so turbulent that it resembles the era in which humans evolved from savages into civilized beings.

Wayne believes that teenagers are naturally rebellious and full of rage because of the biological changes of puberty. Waynes beliefs are consistent with the theory that

the biological upheaval of puberty triggers heightened emotionality, conflict, and defiance

According to anthropologist Margaret Mead, _____________ is/are entirely responsible for the range of teenage experiences.

the social environment

Most researchers today believe that adolescent development is

influenced by biological, psychological, and social forces.

On average, girls reach puberty

2 years earlier than boys.

Fourteen-year-old Phil experiences muscle and body growth and notices the growth of facial and body hair. Which of the following hormones is responsible for this change?

testosterone

The first outward sign of puberty is

the rapid gain in height and weight known as the growth spurt.

Boys show superior athletic performance during the teenage years because

they develop larger skeletal muscles, hearts, and lung capacity than girls.

Which of the following statements is true of physical skill in midadolescence?

Few girls perform as well as the average boy.

Brian is a star high school athlete, who has recently exhibited severe mood swings and aggressiveness. An initial health screening also indicates that Brian has acne, excess body hair, and high blood pressure. Brians symptoms are consistent with

anabolic steroid use.

Which of the following is a secondary sexual characteristic?

pubic hair

Female puberty usually begins with

the budding of the breasts and the growth spurt.

Male puberty usually begins with

enlargement of the testes.

One landmark of male physical maturity is

the deepening of the voice.

Mary and Ashley are identical twins. Abbie and Chandra are fraternal twins. Which of the following is most likely to be true about the timing of puberty?

Mary and Ashley will reach menarche within a month or two of each other.

Girls exposed to family conflict tend to reach menarche __________, whereas those with warm family ties tend to reach menarche __________.

early; relatively late

Which of the following statements about secular trends in pubertal development is true?

In industrialized nations, the age of menarche declined steadily from 1900 to 1970

During puberty, the neurons become more responsive to excitatory neurotransmitters. As a result, adolescents

react more strongly to stressful events and experience pleasurable stimuli more intensely.

Research indicates that adolescents need about ______ hours of sleep each night.

9

Fifteen-year-old Kurt is often sleep-deprived. Research indicates that Kurt will

perform especially poorly on cognitive tasks during morning hours.

Some evidence suggests that _______________ families may better prepare girls for menarche, treat it as an important milestone, and express less conflict over girls reaching sexual maturity.

African-American

Which of the following is true about the onset of menarche and spermarche?

Almost all girls eventually tell a friend that they are menstruating, but fewer boys tell anyone about spermarche.

Initiation ceremonies in industrialized nations, such as the Jewish bar or bat mitzvah and the quinceaera in Hispanic communities, have less effect on the timing of puberty than initiation ceremonies in tribal and village societies because they

usually do not lead to a meaningful change in social status.

Western adolescents are granted partial adult status upon the happening of many different events, including

voting.

Which of the following is true about adolescent moodiness?

Adolescent mood swings are strongly related to situational changes.

Seventeen-year-old Emily is more likely to experience positive emotions when she

engages in self-chosen leisure activities.

____________ is a modern substitute for the actual physical departure of young people from the family group that takes place in nonindustrialized cultures.

Psychological distancing

Ann is having more frequent disagreements with her teenage daughter. If they argue over typical parentadolescent issues, these disagreements are most likely

about everyday matters, such as driving, dating partners, and curfew.

Taylor is popular with agemates, holds many leadership positions in school, and is an athletic star. Taylor displays characteristics consistent with a(n)

early-maturing boy.

Randy is viewed by both adults and peers as anxious, overly talkative, and attention-seeking. Maria is viewed by both groups as physically attractive, lively, and sociable. Which of the following is likely to be true?

Randy and Maria are both late-maturing teens.

Which of the following is true about the role of physical attractiveness and the timing of puberty in Western society?

The ideal male image is a muscular shape that favors the early developer.

Adolescents feel most comfortable with peers who

match their own level of biological maturity.

During the adolescent growth spurt,

girls require somewhat less protein than boys because of their smaller size and muscle mass.

Frequency of ____________ is strongly associated with healthy eating in adolescents.

family meals

___________ is a tragic eating disturbance in which young people starve themselves because of a compulsive fear of getting fat.

Anorexia nervosa

About _____ percent of North American and Western European teenage girls are affected by anorexia nervosa.

1

Boys account for about _____ percent of cases of anorexia.

10

Which of the following parentchild relationships is common among anorexic teenagers?

overprotective and controlling mothers and emotionally distant fathers

Treating anorexia is difficult because victims

generally deny or minimize the seriousness of their disorder.

The most successful treatment for anorexia usually involves

family therapy and medication to reduce anxiety and neurotransmitter imbalances.

Carlie engages in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating, often followed by purging. Carlie suffers from

bulimia nervosa.

Bulimia is usually easier to treat than anorexia because

bulimics usually feel depressed and guilty about their abnormal eating habits.

Bulimia is usually treated by

therapy that focuses on nutrition education.

Compared to other cultures, North American adolescents have

relatively restrictive sexual attitudes.

About _____ percent of young people report getting information from parents about intercourse, pregnancy prevention, and sexually transmitted disease.

50

When adolescents ask questions or offer opinions about sex, adults should

use correct terms for body parts and remain nonjudgmental.

About _______ percent of U.S. adolescents report having had sexual intercourse.

50

Early sexual activity is more common among young people from

economically disadvantaged homes.

Research shows that many adolescents do not use contraception during sexual activity because they

fail to apply their reasoning skills to everyday situations.

Studies show that ________ makes an important contribution to homosexuality.

heredity

Compared to heterosexual men, homosexual men tend to be _______ in birth order and have a(n) _______ number of older brothers.

later; higher-than-average

Which of the following statements is true?

Attraction to members of the same sex is not limited to teens who identify as gay or lesbian.

Which of the following adolescents is most likely to engage in early sexual activity?

Angelo, who is African American

Many gay men and women first sensed their biologically determined sexual orientation between the ages of _______, when they discovered _______________.

6 and 12; their play interests were more like those of the other gender

Many homosexual adolescents and adults move through a three-phase sequence in coming out to themselves and others. Those three phases are

feeling different, confusion, and self-acceptance.

Michelle is a 19-year-old who has reached self-acceptance about being a lesbian. The greatest predictor of her favorable adjustment will be

the level of understanding and support provided by her parents.

In the United States, roughly how many cases of AIDS originate during adolescence?

1 out of 5

Which of the following statements is true about the spread of STDs, including AIDS?

It is at least twice as easy for a male to infect a female, as for a female to infect a male.

Studies show that 60 percent of middle school students and 90 percent of high school students are aware of the basic facts about AIDS but

are poorly informed about how to protect themselves against other STDs.

Teenage pregnancies are a far greater problem today than several decades ago because

adolescents are far less likely to marry before childbirth, increasing the negative consequences for both mother and baby.

Which of the following statements is true about intergenerational continuity in adolescent parenthood?

Intergenerational continuity in adolescent parenthood is far greater when teenage mothers remain unmarried.

Which of the following factors is associated with intergenerational continuity in adolescent pregnancy and parenthood?

father absence

By the end of high school, 50 percent of teenagers have experimented with illegal drugs. These numbers

represent a substantial decline since the mid-1990s, probably resulting from increased focus on the hazards of drug use.

Adolescent drug experimentation

should not be taken lightly because drug use can lead to permanent injury or death.

Which of the following statements describes a minimal drug experimenter?

They are usually psychologically healthy, sociable, curious young people.

According to Piaget, around age 11, young people enter the formal operational stage of development, in which they

are able to come up with new, general logical rules through internal reflection.

Adolescents who reach the formal operational stage of cognitive development

no longer require concrete things and events as objects of thought.

Kia, age 14, uses hypothetic-deductive reasoning. Therefore, she probably

makes predictions about variables that might affect an outcome and then deduces logical, testable inferences from that hypothesis.

Which of the following is true about a school-age childs ability to use hypothetico-deductive reasoning?

She can understand that hypotheses must be confirmed by appropriate evidence.

Fifteen-year-old Kai is able to evaluate the logical of verbal statements without referring to real-world circumstances. According to Piaget, Kai is demonstrating

propositional thought.

Seven-year-old Adea is asked to evaluate evidence about a hypothesis. She will probably

deal with only one or two possible variables and be unable to deal with three or more

Maddy, age 7, is presented with the following statement: If rats are bigger than cats and cats are bigger than mice, then rats are bigger than mice. She will probably judge such reasoning to be

false because not all relations specified occur in real life.

With respect to propositional thought, young children have great difficulty reasoning from premises that contradict reality or their own beliefs because they

fail to grasp the logical necessity of propositional reasoning.

When faced with a propositional reasoning problem, 17-year-old Max is likely to

justify his reasoning by explaining the rules on which it is based

The primary factor that prevents college students and adults from displaying formal operational thinking in some situations is that

they do not have enough experience and practice in using such reasoning.

Which individual is most likely to master formal operational tasks?

Geni, an American high school student

In adolescence, the speed of thinking and processing capacity increase. As a result,

more information can be held at once in working memory and combined into increasingly complex, efficient representations.

Brady is a first grader. When presented with conflicting evidence in a problem, he will probably

distort the evidence so that it is consistent with his preferred theory.

Researchers believe that sophisticated ______________ is vital for scientific reasoning.

metacognitive understanding

Adolescents who believe they are the focus of everyones attention are experiencing

the imaginary audience.

As a result of the imaginary audience, adolescents become

extremely self-conscious.

The imaginary audience is most likely responsible for adolescents

extreme self-consciousness and sensitivity to public criticism

Certain that others are observing and thinking about them, teenagers develop an inflated sense of their own importance known as

the personal fable.

Jonathan views himself as reaching great heights of omnipotence and also sinking to unusual depths of despair. Which of the following cognitive distortions contribute to Jonathans views?

the personal fable

Fifteen-year-old Mary has become critical of her parents and siblings, yet envisions a world with no injustice or discrimination. This is typical of the __________ that manifests during the development of abstract reasoning.

idealism

Korto has a difficult time making decisions. Kortos mother can best help her make rational, logical choices by encouraging her to

identify the pros and cons of each choice and assess the likelihood of various outcomes.

In making decisions, adolescents, more often than adults,

fall back on well-learned intuitive judgments.

Which sixth grader is most likely to report feeling less academically competent and less motivated than he did in fifth grade?

Bob, who attended elementary school in fifth grade and then made a transition to middle school for sixth grade

Northeast Middle School emphasizes competition between students in extracurricular and academic pursuits. Which of the following is likely true?

Students in school transition decline in grade point average.

Central Middle School has a large student body. Staff can minimize the effects of school transitions by

forming smaller units within the school and providing greater extracurricular opportunities.

Which style of child rearing is linked to academic achievement in adolescence?

authoritative

Adolescents whose parents engage in ____________ decision making achieve better academically.

joint parentadolescent

High-achieving students typically have parents who

are involved throughout their childs education.

Teenagers whose parents value achievement

generally choose friends who share those values.

Although the achievement gap separating African-American, Hispanic, and Native-American students from white students has declined since the 1970s, mastery of basic skills remains poor because

minority students too often attend underfunded schools.

Which high school student is most likely to show accelerated academic progress?

Juan, who is assigned to a college preparatory track

The high school dropout rate in the U.S. is about ______ percent.

10

The dropout rate in the U.S. is higher among __________ and is particularly high among _______________.

boys than girls; lower-SES ethnic minorities

Students placed in general education and vocational tracks

are three times more likely to drop out as students in college preparatory tracks.

Recent research indicates that over _____ percent of adolescents in some U.S. inner-city high schools do not graduate.

60

Which of the following is most helpful in keeping potential dropouts in school?

remedial instruction in small classes

To work well, vocational education must

carefully integrate academic and job-related instruction.

High school extracurricular activities that focus on the arts, community services, and vocational development

improve academic performance, self-esteem, and initiative.

Today, nearly _______ percent of U.S. young people earn college degrees.

40

The good news about American high school dropouts is that about one-third of them

return to finish their secondary education within a few years.

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