Ch. 35 - Nationalism and Political Identities in Asia, Africa, and Latin America

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Indian National Congress

most influential association against British rule of India

Muslim League

the league that sought to counteract the Hinduism factors of the Indian National Congress (eventually Muslims created Pakistan)

Gandhi

known as the "Mahatma" (great soul,) encouraged Hinduism and discouraged industrialism, sought to increase the power of the untouchables, and was active with the peasants as well as politics

Ahimsa

a moral philosophy Gandhi embrace after he spent 25 years in South Africa. It means "tolerance and nonviolence"

Satyagraha

a technique of passive and resistance developed from Gandhi's ahimsa. It means "truth and firmness"

Harijans

Gandhi was highly against the caste system do to his belief of human equality. He hated all discrimination and was determined to eradicate the injustices of the caste system. The word Harijans refers to Gandhi's main target of fixing, which was the injustice against the casteless untouchables. The word means "children of God", which is a symbolic way of saying that everyone is equal even the untouchables.

Amritsar

a city in the Punjab region of India; the location of a brutal massacre of unarmed Indian protesters by British troops in 1919

The Indian Act

a compromise between the British government and the Indian nationalists; otherwise known as the "Government of India Act", it formed a fully-fledged Indian government, which would still be under British management.

Muhammad Ali Jinnah

brilliant lawyer as well as the head of the Muslim League in India. Proposed the split between Pakistan and India, with Pakistan becoming the new home for Indian Muslims

Qing

As revolutionary and nationalist uprisings gained support, a revolution in 1911 forced the Xuantong emperor to abdicate the throne. The Qing dynasty fell quickly after that.

Sun Yatsen

proclaimed China a republic and briefly assumed position as president, Three Principles of the People: Nationalism, Democracy, and the People's Livelihood (elimination of privileges for foreigners, democratic republican government based on universal suffrage, national reunification and economic development)

The Republic

China unstable after fall of Qing dynasty. Warlords took over and established themselves as provincial or regional rulers. There were still unequal treaties with other countries who had control over China's economy

May Fourth Movement

Chinese people, especially youths and intellectuals protested against imperialism. They were against foreign interference, especially the Japanese.

Chinese Communist party

organized in Shanghai in 1921. Modeled after Marxist thoughts, and led by Mao Zedong, this was supposed to be a social revolution to cure China's problems. Came after the United states and other western powers did not intervene for China when Japan invaded. Among other things, they promoted women's rights.

Mao Zedong

A former teacher and librarian who was an early member of the CCP. He advocated the belief that a Marxist inspired social revolution would cure China's problems, and held the belief that divorce should be allowed, people should be allowed to chose who they marry, and that foot binding is cruel.

Three Principles of The People

Put forth by Sun Yatsen, he wanted the elimination of special privelages for foreigners, national reunification, economic development, and a democratic republican government based upon equal suffrage for all. This was to be accomplished through united all of China under the Nationalist people's party.

Nationalist People's party

Led by Sun Yatsen and opposed to a dictatorship or communism, this called for a more democratic approach to government, as was meant to unite all of China. It initially allied with the CCP and accepted aid from the Soviet Union.

Jiang Jieshi

Was a young general who had been trained in Japan and the Soviet Union. He did not hold a vision for social revolution that involved the masses of China. He launched a political and military offensive, known as the Northern Expedition, that aimed to unify the nation and bring China under Guomindang rule

Civil war

A war between people of the same country. After the death of Sun Yatsen, leadership of Guomindang fell to Jiang Jieshi. Towards end of his succesful campaign, he turned against his allies and the alliance between the Guomindang and CCP to a bloody end by a civil war

Long March

A epic journey of 10,000 kilometers (6215 miles) that 85 thousand troops and auxiliary personnel of the Red army took

Imperial Japan

After the Great War, Japan achieved great power status and accepted the international status quo ~ joined the League of Nations as one of the "big five" powers, and underwent treaties to improve relations with other countries

Kellogg-Briand pact

Signed by the Japanese government which renounced war as an instrument of national policy

Inukai Tsuyoshi

Japanese politician, cabinet minister, and prime minister of Japan. His assassination was the climax of a campaign of assassinations targeting political and business leaders

Manchuria

China's unification threatened Japan's sphere of influence in Manchuria. Japan established a presence in Manchuria because of their control of the Manchurian railroad. They retained transit rights and stationed troops leading Japan's military forces to assert control over the region

The Mukden Incident

Japanese troops used explosives to blow up a few feet of rail on the South-Manchuria railway. They then accused the Chinese of attacking their railroad thus becoming a pretext for war between Japan and China

Lij Iyasu

was supposed to rule Ethiopia, but was never crowned because of his excommunication by the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahido Church

War in Africa

Africa was under colonial rule from many different powers. The Great War began, in which most colonial powers were involved and Africans were forced to take part as soldiers for various sides. During this war, the Africans challenged European authority and staged many armed revolts, which were violently put down.

Challenges to European Authority

African subjects noticed a weakness in European rule and took advantage by revolting, but Europeans put them down quickly and violently

Infrastructure

what Africa was dependent on to become integrated; ports, roads, railways, and telegraph wires were built throughout the region; it lead to conquest and rule, but linked the agricultural wealth to the outside world

Farming and mining

Europeans took advantage of the African colonies that they ruled over and forced the Africans to work in mines for minimal wages and work as farmers for minimal wages, only farming cash crops. The Africans were forced to do this hard work because the Europeans taxed the Africans so hard that they had to work in those two areas. They were also given the worst of the land to work on in each colony while the Europeans took the best land and the most land even though their population was much less than the Africans

Jomo Kenyatta

Studied abroad in Europe for 15 years, came back to Kenya and led them to independence from the British

Marcus Garvey

Thought that all of the Africans who were descendents of slaves in the U.S. and the Afro-Caribbeans should form a single African state. Preached about black pride and called on black living in the African diaspora to go, "Back to Africa"

W.E.B. Dubois

Thought that all of the Africans who were descendents of slaves in the U.S. and the Afro-Caribbeans should form a single African state

University protests

students were the first to rebel against the economic power of the U.S.; hailed the Mexican and Russian revolutions; began to demand reforms in the 1920's and wanted more representation within the educational system; long-term politicization of student bodies at universities served as a model political system for future politicians

Fidel Castro

university's political system served as a training ground for him, as he became a Cuban dictator later in his life

Jose Carlos Mariategui

felt pity for the poor and for the Indians; castigated Peru's leaders in journals and newspapers for not helping the poor & suffered exile to Europe as a result; came back as a Marxist and established the Socialist party of Peru in 1928; also helped create the Peruvian Communist Party in 1930

APRA

Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (Popular American Revolutionary Alliance); gave another voice to those critical of Peru's ruling system

Apristas

followers of the APRA; advocated indigenous rights and anti-imperialism among other causes; Aprismo offered a radical but non-communist alternative to Peruvians, & it was based off of the ideas of VIctor Raúl Haya de la Torre

Haya de la Torre

A political activist who began as a student protester and as a supporter of a workers' movement. He imparted his views on anti-imperialism and a plan for capitalist development that had peasants and workers cooperating with the middle class on the Popular American Revolutionary Alliance (APRA)

Diego Rivera

A Mexican artist who trained in Mexico in his youth and then moved to Europe to study, not returning until 1921. He was influenced by the work of both Renaissance artists and cubists. Rivera also experienced the turmoil and shifting political sensibilities taking place during the Great War and its aftermath. He blended his artistic and political visions in vast murals that he intended for viewing and appreciation by the masses. He believed that art should be on display for the working people. Rivera shaped the politicized art of Mexico for decades

Dollar Diplomacy

A policy that President William Howard Taft urged the United States to undertake by substituting "dollars for bullets" in foreign policy. Taft wanted businesses to develop foreign markets through peaceful commerce and believed that expensive military intervention should be avoided as much as possible

Getulio Dornelles Vargas

A dictator of Brazil who turned his nation into an estado novo or "new state." Vargas and his government during the 1930's and 40's embarked on a program of industrialization that created new enterprises. The Vargas regime also implemented protectionist policies that shielded domestic production from foreign competition, which pleased both industrialists and urban workers.

Estado novo

"new state" - What dictator Getulio Vargas turned Brazil into. With the backing of the military but without the support of the landowning elite, Vargas turned Brazil into a powerful state

Good Neighbor Policy

a reassessment of foreign policy,"sweetheart treaties" were inacted, given the U.S control of the Caribbean economies of Haiti and the Dominican Republic, in which marines maintained order. This revamped U.S approaches to relations with Latin America

Roosevelt

Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1882-1945) enacted the Good Neighbor Policy and during this time the limits of his neighborliness was highlighted

Nicaragua

U.S financial interests had influenced Nicaragua. In the mid and Late 1920's civil war broke out and U.S marines went in and tried to keep order

Sandino

Augusto Cesar Sandino, was a nationalist and liberalist general who was opposed to the idea of peace based on U.S marines on Nicaraguan soil.

Guardo National

To remove marines, the U.S trained a Nicaraguan National Guard.

Juan Batista Sacasa

supervisioned in 1932 brought him into power in Nicaragua; U.S. troops departed

Anastacio Somoza Garcia

placed as the commander of the Guard in Nicaragua by the U.S.; became president of his country after he ordered the death of Sandino; a very good neighbor to U.S.; collected greatest fortune in Nicaragua's history; established a political dynasty that ruled the nations for decades

Convention on the rights and duties of States

says "no state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another"; signed by Secretary of State Cordell Hull in December 1933; renounced the corollary to the Monroe Doctrine enunciated by Theodore Roosevelt

Lazaro Cardenas

Mexican president who challenged the idea that no state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another when he nationalized the oil industry in March 1938 (much of which is controlled by U.S. and Britain); the matter was peacefully resolved and U.S. did not receive as much compensation from Mexico than they should have

Carmen Miranda

1905 - 1955; Latin American singer adopted by Hollywood who softened representations of Latin Americans; source of Brazilian pride, helped repair relations between U.S. and Latin America

Chiquita Banana

a female banana look-alike of Carmen Miranda; symbolized U.S. eco control of Central America and Caribbean; promoted United Fruit Company bananas, made Latin Americans look less threatening (U.S. didn't like the migrations)

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