The use of milestones in the experiential approach to innovation ____.
shortens the innovation process
The auto industry has been perfecting the internal combustion engine (ICE) for some 120 years. The Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), a cooperative program between the Big Three and the U.S. government to replace ICEs with electric engines, has been operating since 1993. The internal combustion engine (ICE) is an example of ____.
a dominant design
There are eight general steps for organizational development intervention. The first step is ____.
When incremental improvements are made to a dominant technological design such that the improved version of the technology is fully backward compatible with the older version, ____ is said to have occurred.
In the typical S-curve pattern of innovation, increased effort (i.e., money, research, and development) brings only small improvements in technological performance when performance limits of the technology are reached ____.
at the end of the cycle
Which of the following statements describes an advantage of the results-driven change approach to managing change?
All of these were cited as advantages of the results-driven change approach.
Kodak is a company associated with photography. The development of the digital camera forced Kodak into the innovation stream because the new imaging process was a(n) ____.
____ are workplace cultures in which workers perceive that new ideas are welcomed, valued, and encouraged.
Creative work environments
During the ____ phase of a technology cycle, companies innovate by lowering the cost and improving the functioning and performance of the dominant design.
Which of the following approaches is aimed at changing large systems, small groups, or individuals?
Covisint is an e-commerce venture involving many car manufacturers that allows carmakers access to online auctions for buying component parts and materials. Because the idea of such a Web site was a new concept, the prototype site was built and tested, then revised and rebuilt for further testing before the Web site was ever offered to customers. The management concept of ____ was used to develop Covisint.
According to social psychologist Kurt Lewin, ____ lead to differences in the form, quality, or condition of an organization over time, while ____ support the status quo, or the existing state of conditions in an organization.
change forces; resistance forces
Creativity was needed to improve efficiency without raising costs at one automobile maker. Over the last few years, the company has successfully implemented a creative engineering program that allows its plants to produce more than one type of car from the same assembly line. This successful change to a flexible manufacturing system is an example of ____.
According to John Kotter, which of the following actions will adversely influence refreezing efforts?
declaring victory too soon
Kodak is a company associated with photography and has decided to become a market leader in digital imaging. Kodak can encourage the development of a culture where workers perceive that new ideas are welcomed by offering challenging work and supervisory encouragement. In other words, the company can create a(n) ____.
creative work environment
Which of the following is NOT one of the basic methods for managing resistance to change?
An innovation stream moves from one technology cycle to another through the process of ____.
A technology cycle occurs whenever there are major advances or changes in the ____ in a field or discipline.
knowledge, tools, and techniques
When a merger of South Carolina-based Springs Industries with the Brazilian textile producer Coteminas was announced, the CEO of Springs was quoted as saying, "It is unclear what effect this move will have on our employees though no immediate layoffs are planned. There may be some in the future." In this stage of the organizational change, ____ the CEO should use empathy and communicate specific details of the merger.