Language describing ideas and qualities rather than observable or specific things, people, or places.
In an argument, this is an attack on the person rather than on the opponent's ideas. It comes from the Latin meaning "against the man."
A work that functions on a symbolic level
The repetition of initial consonant sounds, such as "Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers."
A reference contained in a work
an event or situation that may be interpreted in more than one way.
a literary device employed to serve as a basis for comparison. It is assumed that what applies to the parallel situation also applies to the original circumstance. In other words, it is the comparison between two different items.
repetition of a word, phrase, or clause at the beginning of two or more sentences in a row. This is a deliberate form of repetition and helps make the writer's point more coherent.
A story or brief episode told by the writer or a character to illustrate a point.
explanatory notes added to a text to explain, cite sources, or give bibliographical data.
the word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers.
the presentation of two contrasting images. The ideas are balanced by phrase, clause, or paragraphs. "To be or not to be . . ." "It was the best of times; it was the worst of times . . ." "Ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country . . ."
A single assertion or a series of assertions presented and defended by the writer
The purpose of this rhetorical mode is to prove the validity of an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, and argument that thoroughly convince the reader.
Repetition of a vowel sound within two or more words in close proximity
Commas used (with no conjunction) to separate a series of words. The parts are emphasized equally when the conjunction is omitted; in addition, the use of commas with no intervening conjunction speeds up the flow of the sentence. X, Y, Z as opposed to X, Y, and Z.
the relationship an author has toward his or her subject, and/or his or her audience
Arguments that draw on recognized experts or persons with highly relevant experience.
Support or evidence for a claim in an argument
a situation in which all parts of the presentation are equal, whether in sentences or paragraphs or sections of a longer work.
Begging the Question
Often called circular reasoning, __ occurs when the believability of the evidence depends on the believability of the claim.
harsh and discordant sounds in a line or passage in a literary word
In __, a writer asserts that one thing results from another. To show how one thing produces or brings about another is often relevant in establishing a logical argument.
those who carry out the action of the plot in literature. Major, minor, static, and dynamic are the types.
Arrangement of repeated thoughts in the pattern of X Y Y X. It is often short and summarizes a main idea