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the study of meaning, the study of linguistic development by classifying and examining changes in meaning and form.


the study of the rules for the formation of grammatical sentences in a language, the study of the patterns of formation of sentences and phrases from words, In linguistics, the study of the rules that govern the ways in which words combine to form phrases, clauses, and sentences. Syntax is one of the major components of grammar, The arrangement of words in a sentence.


writing that demonstrates some awareness that letters represent speech sounds


the smallest unit of speech that distinguishes one word from another, t of tug and r of rug

\Phoneme matching

the ability to identify words that begin with the same sound.

Phoneme isolation

the ability to isolate a single sound from within a word.

Phoneme blending

the ability to blend individual sounds into a word.

Phoneme segmentation

the ability to break a word into individual sounds.

Phoneme manipulation

the ability to modify, change, or move the individual sounds in a word.

Phoneme segmentation

process of dividing a spoken word into the smallest units of sound within that word

Phonemic awareness

the ability to consciously manipulate individual phonemes in a spoken language, ability to tap count or push a penny forward for every sound heard in a word


representing the sounds of speech with a set of distinct symbols (letters) each denoting a single sound


refers to the non-verbal elements of communication used to modify meaning and convey emotion. Paralanguage may be expressed consciously or unconsciously, and it includes the pitch, volume, and, in some cases, intonation of speech. Sometimes the definition is restricted to vocally-produced sounds. The study is known as paralinguistics. The term 'paralanguage' should not be confused with kinesics, or the study of body language. While kinesics is non-linguistic, it is not necessarily related to vocal or written language: paralanguage is.

Formal assessments (norm and criterion)

Formal assessments have data which support the conclusions made from the test. We usually refer to these types of tests as standardized measures. These tests have been tried before on students and have statistics which support the conclusion such as the student is reading below average for his age. The data is mathematically computed and summarized. Scores such as percentiles, stanines, or standard scores are mostly commonly given from this type of assessment.

Informal assessments (reading inventories)

Informal assessments are not data driven but rather content and performance driven. For example, running records are informal assessments because they indicate how well a student is reading a specific book. Scores such as 10 correct out of 15, percent of words read correctly, and most rubric scores; are given from this type of assessment.

A criterion-referenced test

a test that provides a basis for determining a candidate's level of knowledge and skills in relation to a well-defined domain of content. What all of these tests have in common is that they attempt to determine a candidate's level of performance in relation to a well-defined domain of content.

norm-referenced tests

determine a candidate's level of the construct measured by a test in relation to a well-defined reference group of candidates, referred to as the norm group.

Flexible grouping

allows students to see themselves in a variety of contexts and aids the teacher in "auditioning" students in different settings and with different kinds of work

phonological component

involves the rules for combining sounds. Speakers of English, for example, know that an English word can end, but not begin, with an -ng sound. We are not aware of our knowledge of these rules, but our ability to understand and pronounce English words demonstrates that we do know a vast number of rules.

semantic component

is made up of morphemes, the smallest units of meaning that may be combined with each other to make up words(for example, paper + s are the two morphemes that make up papers), and sentences (Brown, 1973). A dictionary contains the semantic component of a language, but also what words (and meanings) are important to the speakers of the language.

syntactic component

consists of the rules that enable us to combine morphemes into sentences. As soon as a child uses two morphemes together, as in "more cracker," she is using a syntactic rule about how morphemes are combined to convey meaning.


reading instruction should be combined with intensive development of the oral language needed to understand the text. Before phonics instruction begins, students must have the phonemic awareness skills they need in order to perceive individual sounds in words. This is particularly important for sounds that are problematic because of the native language.

Phonemic Awareness

children should have extensive experiences with fun and appealing songs, poems, chants, and read-alouds that will allow them to hear and reproduce the sound patterns of English.


Repeated readings of texts that contain unfamiliar vocabulary and sentence structures will not increase fluency. When working on developing fluency, be sure that students are reading texts that they are familiar with and can understand. Students' own language experience stories are a very good choice, as are read-alouds that students have heard several times and discussed.


Everything a teacher of ELLs does should revolve around vocabulary acquisition-explaining, demonstrating, drawing, repeating, reading, writing, and playing with words throughout every aspect of instruction.

Concept of print

Children with print awareness can begin to understand that written language is related to oral language. They see that, like spoken language, printed language carries messages and is a source of both enjoyment and information. Children who lack print awareness are unlikely to become successful readers. Indeed, children's performance on print awareness tasks is a very reliable predictor of their future reading achievement.

Sight words

Sight words are words that are instantly recognized without having to "figure them out." They rarely follow any rules and just have to be memorized.

Consonant blends or clusters (e.g., br, tr)

may be added; digraphs (e.g., th, sh, ch) are often introduced to permit children to read words such as this, she, and chair. Stop sounds at the beginning or middle of words may be harder for children to blend than are continuous sounds. Consonant blends or clusters may be harder for some children to learn than single consonants. For some children, being presented with consonant blends or clusters and individual sounds in the same lesson can lead to difficulty

Vowel digraph

A vowel digraph is a spelling pattern where two or more vowels are used together to make one vowel sound. For example ei as in sleigh, ea as in thread, and aw as in raw.


A question that can be answered directly from the text. The answer is already there. It is just if you can identify it. Sometimes you would need to word it.


A question that cannot be answered straight from the text. You will need to think about it and read over the text to see. The text only tells you hints and clues. Sometimes you would need to word it.


Evaluative questions are very similar to Inferential Questions. However, Evaluative sort of sums up the text and ask you to judge something of the text such as; the meaning, truth, answer, opinion and etc. Sometimes you would need to word it.

Precommunicative stage

The child uses symbols from the alphabet but shows no knowledge of letter-sound correspondences. The child may also lack knowledge of the entire alphabet, the distinction between upper- and lower-case letters, and the left-to-right direction of English orthography.

Semiphonetic stage

The child begins to understand letter-sound correspondence that sounds are assigned to letters. At this stage, the child often employs rudimentary logic, using single letters, for example, to represent words, sounds, and syllables (e.g., U for you).

Phonetic stage

The child uses a letter or group of letters to represent every speech sound that they hear in a word. Although some of their choices do not conform to conventional English spelling, they are systematic and easily understood. Examples are KOM for come and EN for in.

Transitional stage

The speller begins to assimilate the conventional alternative for representing sounds, moving from a dependence on phonology (sound) for representing words to a reliance on visual representation and an understanding of the structure of words. Some examples are EGUL for eagle and HIGHEKED for hiked.

Correct stage

The speller knows the English orthographic system and its basic rules. The correct speller fundamentally understands how to deal with such things as prefixes and suffixes, silent consonants, alternative spellings, and irregular spellings. A large number of learned words are accumulated, and the speller recognizes incorrect forms. The child's generalizations about spelling and knowledge of exceptions are usually correct.


that is, quick and accurate recognition of words and phrases

Emergent readers

need enriching and enjoyable experiences with books, especially picture books. Students can become comfortable with books even before they can read independently—recognizing letters and words and even language patterns. They are able to work with concepts of print and are at the beginning stages of developing the ability to focus attention on letter-sound relationships. Sharing books over and over, extending stories, relating experiences to both print and pictures, and guiding students to "read," helps children begin to make predictions about what they are reading.

Early readers

are able to use several strategies to predict a word, often using pictures to confirm predictions. They can discuss the background of the story to better understand the actions in the story and the message the story carries. It is this time in the reader's development that the cueing systems are called upon significantly, so they must pay close attention to the visual cues and language patterns, and read for meaning. It is a time when reading habits of risk-taking, and of predicting and confirming words while keeping the meaning in mind are established.

Transitional readers

often like to read books in a series as a comprehension strategy; the shared characters, settings, and events support their reading development. They read at a good pace; reading rate is one sign of a child's over-all comprehension. At this stage, children generally have strategies to figure out most words but continue to need help with understanding increasingly more difficult text.

Fluent readers

are confident in their understandings of text and how text works, and they are reading independently. The teacher focuses on students' competence in using strategies to integrate the cueing systems. Students are maintaining meaning through longer and more complex stretches of language. An effective reader has come to understand text as something that influences people's ideas.


is a process intended to shift educational resources toward the delivery and evaluation of instruction, and away from classification of disabilities. RTI is not a particular method or instructional approach. The success of RTI depends on the timely delivery of research-based instruction by highly qualified instructors. Although RTI can be implemented at any grade level, it is likely that the development of language and literacy skills will be addressed most prominently in the early grades, kindergarten though third grade

Tier 1 (general education)

In this school, all children start in Tier 1, which consists of a research-based core curriculum. All children are screened at this Tier to determine if they are responding appropriately to instruction before they experience any significant failure in comparison to their peers.

Tier 2 (early intervening services)

In this school, Tier 2 consists of increasing the time and intensity of the child's exposure to the core curriculum for children who do not appear to be responding appropriately to Tier 1 instruction. For instance, an additional 30 minutes per day may be devoted to reading in a small group (3-6 students), with a focus on building accurate and automatic recognition of words in text. Adjustments can be made within Tier 2 to increase time on task or decrease student/teacher ratio. (In some schools such adjustments may be referred to as Tier 3, Tier 4, and so on.)

Tier 3 (intensive intervention)

In this school, Tier 3 includes many children who have been found eligible for special education and related services, and some who have not. Special education eligibility may allow exposure to remedial methods and practices that, although research-based and aligned with the content of the core curriculum, are not necessarily a part of the core curriculum. The cycle of progress-monitoring and adjustment of intervention will continue, even if a determination for special education eligibility is made.
Note (1)- Regular progress monitoring (probes) and charting are required during all Tier 2 and Tier 3 interventions.
Note (2)- For The purpose of clarification, this paper views special education as a service (not a place) that may be appropriate for a particular child in Tier 1 and not necessary for another child participating in the highest Tier of RTI. RTI and special education services are independent yet collaborative and share a common mission; that being to improve outcomes for all children.

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