War between Britain and the Qing Empire that was, in the British view, occasioned by the Qing government's refusal to permit the importation of opium into its territories. The victorious British imposed the one-sided Treaty of Nanking on China. (p. 684)
Treaty Of Nanking
Treaty that ended the Opium War. China had to pay for destroyed opium. Gave Hong Kong to England for 97 years. It allowed extraterrortiality
A person accused of a crime is sent ohome to their parent country for punishment
1854-1868 peasant led 14 year-long rebellion in China; demanded equality, no private propery, dividing of harvest (they lost)
The last dynasty to rule China
Spheres of Influence
European countries had exclusive trading rights to areas in China
Open Door Policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
1899 rebellion in Beijing, China started by a secret society of Chinese who opposed the "foreign devils". The rebellion was ended by British troops
empress who had gained power of China by the 1800's, committed to Confucian ideas. First supported the boxers but reversed her policy once they retreated
Last emperor of China
Commodor Mathew Perry
he was the american admiral that opened trade with Japan in 1853
Treaty of Kanagawa
An agreement by Japan with America, that Japan would open two ports to trade with the U.S. and would help shipwrecked U.S. sailors
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism. (See also Yamagata Aritomo.)
War between China and Japan. Japan invaded Manchuria for resources in 1895.
Dr. Sun Yat Sen
The father of the revolution. He started the Koumintang. Three Principles of the People.
Three Principles of the People
sun yixian 1. nationalism (end foreign domination) 2. democracy (create a democratic govt.) 3.livelihood (jobs)
Chinese general and first president of the Chinese Republic (1912-1916). He stood in the way of the democratic movement led by Sun Yat-sen. (p. 768)
The political party founded in 1911 by Sun Yat-sen. It was the nitionalist party.
Chaing Kai Shek
Nationalist party leader who lead attack against communists in 1927 which lead them to go into hiding and regroup.
First United Front
(1923-1927) CCP and Guomindang formed an alliance in 1923 to end warlordism. Formed the National Revolutionary Army and lead through Northern Expedition.
May 4th Movement
Protests sparked by China's unfair treatment at the Paris Peace Conference; significant in that it mobilized and radicalized students
The 6,000-mile (9,600-kilometer) flight of Chinese Communists from southeastern to northwestern China. The Communists, led by Mao Zedong, were pursued by the Chinese army under orders from Chiang Kai-shek.
Pu Yi's Scottish born tutor.
Second United Front
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Kuomintang (KMT) and Chinese Communist Party (CCP) during the Second Sino-Japanese War that suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1946. Followed Xian Incident.
Where Chaing Kai Shek fled after being overrun by Mao. Now known as Taiwan.
The overthrow of a society's state and class structures and the fashioning of new social arrangements.
Agrarian Reform Act
Land was taken away from the wealthy landowners and given to the poor peasants.
Loyalty was given to the state not the family. It emancipated women.
Counter-Revolutionary Suppression Act
This encouraged people to spy on their neighbors and friends to weed out capitalists or traitors to communism.
The 5 Anti-Movement
This movement was targeted against the business class. Business men were arrested for tax evasion, bribery, stealing, and cheating
Thought Reform Act
School and universities were forced to teach the works of Marx, Lenin, and Mao
Through media and propganda the masses were targeted into being good Communists. Million were sent to work camp or were killed
The Five Year Plan
An attempt by Mao to reform and modernize China's economy. They received Soviet money, engineers, and architects. One hundred Soviet backed projects were completed.
The Great Leap Forward
Also known as the Second Five Year Plan., In 1958 Zedong launched a program; he urged people to make a superhuman effort to increase farm and industrial output and created communes; Rural communes set up
the chief executive and political committee of the Communist Party
Zhou Enlai was a prominent and influential member of the Chinese Communist Party during the time of Mao. He played a large role in China's reestablishing ties with the West.
a radical reform in China initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 and carried out largely by the Red Guard
a mass movement of civilians, mostly students and other young people in the People's Republic of China, who were mobilized by Mao Zedong between 1966 and 1968, during the Cultural Revolution.
Ping Pong diplomacy
US and China exchange ping-pong players, 1971, US ping-pong team was invited to all expense paid exhibition trip to China to compete, normally Americans weren't allowed into China because of Communism, leads to Nixon and Mao Zedong becoming friends
Fourth leader after the emporer; created the 4 modernizations, was leader when Gorbachev of the U.S.S.R came, was leader during Tiananmen Square, created the 4 Special Zones. Communist.
Deng Xiaoping's plants to modernize/industrial China, includes: Farming, Industry, Science/Technology, Defense
1988 when students protest for democracy.