Young children's attempts to use their best judgment about spelling.
1st Stage of Spelling Development - uses symbols but no letter-sound correspondence.
2nd Stage of Spelling Development - one or two letters may represent words. (U for you)
3rd Stage of Spelling Development - write one letter for each sound heard in a word but doesn't correspond with conventional English (KOM for come)
4th Stage of Spelling Development - begins to assimilate conventional ways to represent sound (HIGHKEKED for Hiked)
5th Stage of Spelling Development - speller knows the basic English orthographic system
International Phonetic Alphabet
Study of the meaning/interpretation of words/sentences, etc.
Grammar and Syntax
Arrangement of words when speaking/writing.
Study of signs and symbols as elements of communication, includes gestures. For example, traffic signs, open signs on a business.
Study of morphemes (smallest units of speech that have meaning)
Study of way context contributes to meaning.
3 Major Communication Skills of Pragmatics
Using language for different purposes, changing language to meet needs of listener, following rules of conversation/storytelling
Common Signs of Pragmatic Problems
Saying inappropriate or unrelated things during a conversation, telling stories in a disorganized way, using little variety in language use.
Aye, eye and I.
nature: original sound for "t" comes out "ch"
Non-native speakers whose grammar errors have remained constant for a long period of time.
adjectives that stand alone, for example "smart"
adjectives that compares 2 things, for example "smarter"
adjectives that compares 3 or more things, for example "smartest"
Links nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other words in a sentence (in, on, over, beside)
Made up of the preposition, its object and any asociated adjectives or adverbs. Can function as a noun, an adjective, or an adverb.
Verb action that can take place in the past, the present or the future
Past Perfect Tense
a tense where an action that ended before another action or time in the past. (He had cooked dinner when his cell phone rang.)
Present Perfect Tense
a tense where an action that happened at an unspecified time in the past. (He has cooked many meals.)
Future Perfect Tense
a tense where an action that will end before another action or time in the future. (He will have cooked dinner by the time you get here.)
Common Verb Tense Errors
I play ball yesterday. She go to the grocery store every Monday. I give the book to her last week.
A group of words used as a single part of speech without a verb and it's subject. ("in the yard" in "The boy was playing kickball in the yard.")
A group of words with a verb and it's subject.
clause that makes sense by itself.
Dependent or Subordinate Clause
clause that contains a subject and verb but does not express a complete thought. It cannot be a sentence.
clause that begins with relative pronoun; nonrestrictive; not essential to meaning of sentence. (Johnny, who couldn't swim, should not jump into the ocean.)
clause essential to meaning. (People, who cannot swim, should not jump into the deep end of the pool.)
clause that begins with subordinating conjunction (after, although, before,...); it functions as an adverb; it contains a subject and a predicate; it modifies a verb (She attended the reception while her brother sang.)
clause that begins with a relative pronoun and does the work of a noun in the sentence (Whether you like it or not is not the issue.)
identify or point to nouns (That is incredible!...That refers to something you just saw.)
a word, phrase, or clause to which a pronoun refers, understood by context (The soldier left his post.)
A particular part of the vocal range, such as, the upper, middle or lower; a certain vocal timbre.
The pattern or melody of pitch used at the end of the sentence which distinguishes kinds of sentences.
A round about way of speaking. In English we would consider it to be the use of too many words.
The belief that one's own cultural norms are superior to others.
Sounds produced by allowing some of the sound to go through the nose; m, n and ng sounds in English
Expulsion of breath in speech
Speech sound articulated by a momentary, complete closing of the glottis in the back of the throat