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Chapter 8 Pool Questions

What is NOT one of the three basic classes of problems?

probability

Functional fixedness is the...

tendency to perceive an item only in terms of its most common use

If you tend to persist in using the same problem-solving strategy time after time, you are showing a...

mental set

A shortcut, "rule of thumb", or guiding principle used in solving problems or making decisions is...

a heuristic

Individuals from Eastern Asian cultures tend to focus on context and the relationships among elements in a field. This is referred to as a...

holistic cognitive style

Nisbett and his colleagues suggest that a holistic style of thinking is one that focuses on...

context and relationships among the elements in a field

Compared to individuals from Eastern cultures, individuals from Western cultures are more likely to display...

an analytic cognitive style

According to Schwartz (2004), people who are overwhelmed with an abundances of choices are ___ to make errors in their choosing compared to people faced with fewer choices.

more likely

When faced with having to choose among numerous alternatives, most person will opt for an...

elimination by aspects approach

Research suggests that when making a decision involving relatively few options people tend to use...

additive strategies

What strategy for decision-making might involve the weighting of individual attributes differently based on the importance of the attributes?

additive strategies

Subjective utility refers to...

what an outcome is personally worth to an individual

If you enjoy a day at the racetrack and don't really care if you end up with a little more or little less money at the end of the day, your behavior is most influenced by the ____ ____ you put on your day's entertainment.

expected value

You flip a fair coin ten times. Each time it comes heads, you get ten cents. Each time it comes up tails, you lose five cents. What is your expected value for each flip of the coin?

+.025 cents

________ involve making choices under uncertain conditions.

risky decisions

When people overestimate the frequency of violent crimes because these events generate great deal of media coverage, they are using...

the availability heuristic

Even though he knows only a small percentage of high school athletes go on to professional careers, Charlie believes that he will receive a scholarship to play football in college and then will have a career in the NFL. Charlie is...

not applying base rates to himself

The gambler's fallacy reflect the influence of...

representativeness heuristic

The media tends to report death from natural disasters far more often than deaths from smoking. Thus many people believe that natural disasters cause more deaths than cigarettes. This is an example of...

the availability heuristic

Evolutionary theorists DO NOT argue that...

human brains are wired to think in terms of base rates and probabilities

When people must choose between two alternatives, and then recognize one alternative but not the other, they often infer that the alternative they recognize has the higher value. This decision-making heuristic is called the...

recognition heuristic

Which heuristic do MOST people employ when making everyday, common-place decisions?

fast and frugal

Austin is completing the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, and one section of the test evaluates his ability to analyse patterns and copy designs using blocks. Austin's score on this section of the test will be used in the computation of his score on...

performance scale

Most intelligence tests over the years have tended to stress...

general mental ability, which includes verbal, practical, and social intelligence

IQ tests are fairly good predictors of...

vocational success

The IQ scores of ____ show the highest correlation.

identical twins reared together

Reaction range is the _____ determined limit on IQ (or other traits).

genetically

A deprived environment is generally _____ correlated with IQ.

relatively

Alex is very skilled at dealing effectively with the problems he encounters in everyday life. Steinberg would be MOST likely to to have high...

practical intelligence

Gardner's view of intelligence suggests that a highly successful car salesperson would be MOST likely to have high...

interpersonal intelligence

What statement concerning creativity is NOT accurate?

creativity usually occurs in a burst of insight

This is NOT a trait of creative personalities.

extraverted

According to Anderson (1897, 2005) what percentage of writers suffered a mood disorder at some point in their life?

80%

Which of the following is a hypothetical construct?

intelligence

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