Immune System 2

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Section 2 Worksheet

2 major anatomical parts of the immune system

1) Specialized immune cells (ex. leukocytes)
2) Lymphoid organs and tissues (ex. bone marrow)

Cells of the immune system originate in ________. These cells are called ______ when traveling in the blood and are classified according to the shape of their nucleus and the colors of their granules when stained.

Bone marrow, leukocytes

Neutrophil

Multilobed nucleus
Pale-staining granules

Lymphocyte

Small leukocyte, round nucleus
No prominent granules

Monocyte

large leukocyte, U-shape nucleus
no prominent granules

Eosinophil

Bilobed nucleus with granules
No prominent granules

Basophil

Large granules hide lobed nucleus
stains blue/purple

Phagocytes

Neutrophils (blood
Macrophages (tissue)

Antigen-presenting cells

Dendritic cells (tissue)
Macrophages (tissue)
B cells (blood)

Effector Cells of adaptive immunity

B and T cells (blood)

Other Specialized Immune Cells

Mast Cells (tissue)

Both B and T cells originate from _______.

Bone Marrow

The B cells mature in the _________.

Bone marrow

The T cells mature in the ________.

Thymus

Secondary Lymphoid Organs

A) Lymph nodes
B) Spleen
C) Peyer's patches
D) Appendix
E) Tonsils

3 Parts of the Lymphatic System

1) Lymphatic Vessels
2) Lymph
3) Lymph Nodes

How many liters or interstitial fluid is returned to the cardiovascular system per day?

3 L/Day

If lymphatic vessels do not function properly, there will be a buildup of fluid in the tissues. This condition is called ________.

Lymphedema

The lymphatic capillaries have ______ valves to collect the excess interstitial fluid and any leaked proteins.

One-way

The lymph is filtered through the _________ where antigens and pathogens are removed and the immune system can be activated.

Lymph Nodes

Special lymphatic capillaires in the intestines, called ______, transport absorbed ______ from the intestines into the blood.

Lacteals, Fat

2 Functions of the lymph nodes

1) removal of antigens and other debris
2) activation of the immune system (B and T cells)

While _____ lymphatic vessels carry lymph from the tissues to the lymph nodes, _______ vessels carry cleansed lymph away from the lymph nodes.

afferent, efferent

___ cells are found in the germinal centers of lymphoid follicles, and ____ cells wander through the deep _____, searching dendritic cells for their special antigen.

B, T, Cortex

3 Functions of the Spleen

1) Removes pathogens, aged erythrocytes and platelets
2) Stores platelets and breakdown products of erythrocytes
3) Site for activation of the immune system

MALT

mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue
-peyer's patches, tonsils, appendix
-respiratory system

The ______, a primary lymphoid organ, is the site for differentiation of lymphocytes into mature T cells.

Thymus

What happens to the thymus as we age?

The thymus decreases in size and activity

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