Psychology Chapter 9 motivation Q&As

24 terms by lynnmalkes 

Create a new folder

Advertisement Upgrade to remove ads

To psychologists, motivation refers to __________.
a. a state of tension resulting from the deprivation of physical needs, such as those for food and water
b. a process in which an individual sets goals in order to increase his or her competence and skills
c. an inferred process within an organism that causes it to move toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation
d. movement through a hierarchy of needs, beginning with survival needs for sleep, food, and water and reaching the need for self-actualization

c. an inferred process within an organism that causes it to move toward a goal or away from an unpleasant situation

You overhear a psychologist presenting a lecture to an introductory psychology class. The teacher mentions "purposeful or goal-directed behavior that may vary in intensity from one occasion to another." You recognize that he is talking about which type of behavior?
a. Motivated
b. Emotional
c. Frustrated
d. Preconscious

a. Motivated

4. One positive outcome of instinct approaches was _____________.
a. that they gave birth to psychoanalytic theory
b. that psychologists began focusing on learning theories
c. that psychologists were now forced to consider the effects of heredity on behavior
d. a better explanation of behavior

c. that psychologists were now forced to consider the effects of heredity on behavior

6. Which of the following behaviors is NOT an example of drive-reduction theory?
a. getting some food when you are hungry
b. going to sleep when you are tired
c. getting something to drink when you are thirsty
d. going jogging when you are bored

d. going jogging when you are bored

10. Which of the following is correct for all people high in the need for achievement?
a. They look for careers that pay a lot of money.
b. They look for careers and hobbies that allow others to evaluate them.
c. They look for careers that require little education.
d. They look for careers that will make them famous.

b. They look for careers and hobbies that allow others to evaluate them.

11. Sydney said, "I don't care much about my grades as long as I'm the most popular girl in the class!" What need is this?
a. need for achievement
b. need for affiliation
c. need for power
d. need for sex

b. need for affiliation

14. Glenn believes he can learn from his mistakes and that study and perseverance will help him improve his intelligence. According to Dweck, what locus of control does Glenn have?
a. internal locus of control
b. Decremental
c. Incidental
d. external locus of control

a. internal locus of control

17. Which of the following factors is most likely to have an effect on predictions made by the Yerkes Dodson Law?
a. task instructions
b. gender of person doing the task
c. age of person doing the task
d. difficulty of task

d. difficulty of task

18. Which level of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy is epitomized by the U.S. Army's slogan "Be all that you can be"?
a. Safety
b. self-esteem
c. Belongingness
d. self-actualization

d. self-actualization

19. Which of the following shows a focus on the lowest of Maslow's hierarchy of needs?
a. Joan wants to live in a house with all the modern conveniences so that she may have more time to seek fulfillment from her career and family.
b. Frank feels that he is a good salesman because he likes what he does and knows how to do it well.
c. Barbara knows that as a teacher she is a good person because she realizes the importance of imparting knowledge to society.
d. Mark works hard as an attorney only so that he can attract more clients, more money, and be secure in the knowledge that his family can survive.

d. Mark works hard as an attorney only so that he can attract more clients, more money, and be secure in the knowledge that his family can survive.

22. Emotion has been defined to have three elements. Please identify which choice below is NOT one of the three elements.
a. Physical arousal
b. Behavior which reveals the feeling to the outside world
c. Inner awareness of feeling
d. Cognitive dissonance for the exhibited behavior

d. Cognitive dissonance for the exhibited behavior

23. Researchers have found that negative feelings such as sadness, anxiety, and depression seem to be a function of _______________.
a. the left hemisphere of the brain
b. Evolution
c. the hormone leptin
d. the occipital lobe and the pineal gland

a. the left hemisphere of the brain

Paul Ekman and his colleagues gathered abundant evidence supporting the universality of _______ basic facial expressions of emotion.
a. Three
b. Five
c. Seven
d. Nine

c. Seven

26. ___________ proposed that two things have to happen before emotion occurs: physical arousal and labeling.
a. Plutchik
b. The James-Lange
c. The Cannon-Bard theory
d. Schachter and Singer

d. Schachter and Singer

1) Motivation is a ___________________or _____________________ that
__________________________ behavior and ____________________________it toward a
__________________________(4pts)

1) Need ; desire; energizes; directs; goal

2) After the Instinct Theory (early 20th century) was found inadequate to explain human motivation, the next theory of motivation based on biology and heredity was articulated by Clark Hull (1943). It is called the ______________________________________. If a need arises the organism engages in behavior that seeks to satisfy the need and returns to a state of equilibrium. Its underlying assumption is that humans seek a state of _______________________________. (2)

2) Drive reduction theory; homeostasis

3) McClelland (1961 and 1980ies) proposed a theory of psychological motivation. List the 3 needs he described in his work and include their common abbreviation: (3pts)
(a) _______________________________________ __ (_______)
(b) _______________________________________________ (_______)
(c) ________________________________________________( ______ )

3) Achievement (nAch); Affiliation (nAff); Power (nPow)

4) Several Theories of Arousal were articulated. Among them, the Yerkes-Dodson Law. It states that the optimal arousal for the performance of tasks depends on the level of ________________________ of the task. For new or challenging tasks a ______________________ level of arousal is best. (2pts)

4) Difficulty; low to moderate;

5) Abraham Maslow (1971) proposed a comprehensive, theory of human motivation in a hierarchical structure. List 3 of the 4 criticisms your text mentions that were raised against his theory: (6 pts)
(a) ___________________________________________________________________________
(b) ___________________________________________________________________________
(c) ___________________________________________________________________________

5) Little scientific support; sometimes self-actualization needs can come before lower needs

1) The elements of emotions are (a) ____________________________, (b) ______________________
that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and (c) a subjective (inner) ________________________ of the feeling (3pts)

1. Physical arousal; behavior; inner awareness or feeling

2) Name the 6 basic emotions that are found to be universal: (a) ______________________
(b)___________________ (c)_____________________ (d)_________________________
(e)___________________ (f)_____________________

2. Anger; fear; disgust; happiness; surprise; sadness;

3) Place in order of occurrence, the elements of emotion according to the Schachter-Singer theory of emotion: Snarling big dog: (fear; ANS arousal; cognitive appraisal)
(a) ________________________; (b) ______________________; (c) ___________________________;
(if applicable, indicate whether any of the above occur at the same time) (3pts)

3. ANS arousal; fear; cognitive appraisal;

4) Place in order of occurrence, the elements of emotion according to Lazarus's theory of emotions: Snarling big dog: (fear, ANS arousal; threat appraisal)
(a) ________________________; (b) _______________________; (c) __________________________; (if applicable, indicate whether any of the above occur at the same time) (3pts)

4. Appraisal; fear; ANS arousal;

5) While humans share several basic emotions their expression on a social setting is learned within a cultural context governed by __________________________________ (1pt)

5. Display rule

Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.

Having trouble? Click here for help.

We can’t access your microphone!

Click the icon above to update your browser permissions above and try again

Example:

Reload the page to try again!

Reload

Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom

Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom

It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.

Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.

For more help, see our troubleshooting page.

Your microphone is muted

For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.

Star this term

You can study starred terms together

NEW! Voice Recording

Create Set